Mathematics |
Sets, Relations and Functions |
2 |
Sets and their represention |

Union |

Intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties |

Power set |

Relation |

Types of relations |

Equivalence relations |

Functions |

One-one, into and onto functions |

Composition of functions |

Complex number and Quadratic Equations |
2 |
Complex numbers as ordered pairs or reals |

Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane |

Argand diagram |

Algebra of complex numbers |

Modulus and argument of a complex number |

Square root of a complex number |

Triangle inequality |

Quadratic equation in real and complex number system and their solutions |

Relation between roots and co-efficients |

Nature of roots |

Formation of quadratic equations with given roots |

Matrices and Determinants |
2 |
Matrices |

Algebra of matrices |

Types of matrices |

Determinants and matrices of order two and three |

Properties of determinants |

Evaluation of determinants |

Area of triangles using determinants |

Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations |

Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices |

Permutations and Combinations |
1 or 2 |
Fundamental principle of counting |

Permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection |

Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r). simple applications |

Mathematical Induction |
0 |
Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications. |

Binomial theorem and its simple applications |
1 |
Binomial theorem for a positive integral index |

General term and middle term |

Properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications |

Sequences and Series |
1 |
Arithmetic and Geometric progressions |

Insertion of arithmetic, geometric means berween two given numbers |

Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series Sn, Sn2, Sn3 |

Arithmetico-Geometric progression |

Limit, Continuity and Differentiability |
2 or 3 |
Real |

Valued functions |

Algebra of functions |

Polynomial functions |

Rational Functions |

Trigonometric Functions |

Logarithmic and expotentials functions |

Inverse functions |

Graphs of simple functions |

Limits, continuity and differentiability |

Differentiation or the sum and difference |

Product and quotient of two functions |

Difftrentiation of trigonometric |

Inverse trigonometric |

Logarithmic exponential |

Composite and implicit functions |

Derivatives of order upto two |

Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean value Theorems |

Applications of derivatives |

Rate of change of quantities |

Monotonic - increasing and decreasing functions |

Maxima and minima of functions of one variable |

Tangents and normals |

Integrals Calculus |
3 |
Integral as an anti -derivative |

Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric , Exponential and logarithmic functions |

Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions |

Integration using trigonometric identities |

Integral as limit or a sum |

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus |

Properties of definite integrals |

Evaluation of definite integrals |

determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form |

Differential Equations |
1 |
Ordinary differential equations and their order and degree |

Formation of differential equations |

Solution of differential equations by the method of seperations of variables |

Solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations |

Co-ordinate Geometry |
4 |
Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates 10 in a plane |

Distance formula |

Section formula |

Locus and its equation |

Translation of axes |

Slope of a line |

Parallel and perpendicular lines |

Intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes |

Various forms of equations of a straight line |

Intersection of lines |

Angles between two lines |

Conditions for concurmence of three lines |

Distance of a point from a line |

Equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines |

Coordinates of centroid |

Orthocentre and circumcentre or a triangle |

Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines |

Standard form of equation of a circle |

General form of the equation or a circle, its radius and centre |

Equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given |

Points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre a the origin and condirion for a line to be tangent to a circle |

Equation of the tangent |

Sections of cones |

Equation of Conic Sections in standard forms |

Condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency |

Three-Dimensional Geometry |
2 |
Coordinates of a point in space |

Distance between two points |

Section formula |

Direction ratios and direction cosines |

Angle between two intersecting lines |

Skew lines and the shortest distance bctween them and its equation |

Equations of a line and a plane in different forms |

Intersection of a line and a plane |

Coplanar lines |

Vector Algebra |
1 |
Vectors and scalars |

Addition of vectors |

Components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space |

Scalar and vector products |

Scalar and vector triple product |

Statistics and Probability |
3 |
Measures of Dispersion |

Calculation of mean and median |

Mode of grouped and ungrouped data calculation of standard deviation |

Variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data |

Probability of an event |

Addition and multiplication theorems or probability |

Baye's theorem |

Probability distribution of a random variate |

Bermoulli trials and Binomial distribution |

Trigonometry |
2 |
Trigonometrical identities and equations |

Trigonometrical functions |

Inverse trigonometrical functions and their properties |

Heights and Distances |

Mathematical Reasoning |
1 |
Statements |

Logical operations and, or, implies, implied by, if and only if |

Understanding ot tautology |

Contradiction |

Converse and contrapositive |

Physics |
Physics and Measurements |
1 |
Physics |

Technology and society |

S I units |

Fundamental and derived units |

Least count |

Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments |

Errors in measurement |

Dimensions of Physical quantities |

Dimensional analysis and its applications |

Kinematics |
1 or 2 |
Frame of reference |

Motion in a straight line |

Position-time graph |

Speed and velocity |

Uniform and non-uniform motion |

Average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accclerated motion |

Velocity-time graph |

Position-time graphs |

Relations for uniformly accelerated mnotion |

Scalars and Vectors |

Vector addition and Subtraction |

Zero Vector |

Scalar and vector products |

Unit vector |

Resolution of a Vector |

Relative Velocity |

Motion in a plane |

Projectile Motion |

Uniform Circular Motion |

Laws of Motion |
1 |
Force and Inertia |

Newton’s First Law of motion |

Momentum |

Newton's Second Law of motion |

Impulse |

Newton's Third Law or motion |

Law of conservation of linear momnentum and its applications |

Equillibrium of concurrent forces |

Static and Kinetic friction |

Laws of friction |

Rolling friction |

Dynamics of uniform circular motion |

Centripetal force and Its applications |

Work, Energy and Power |
1 or 2 |
Work done by a constant force and a variable force |

Kinetic and potential energies |

Work energy theorem |

Power |

Potential energy of a spring |

Conservation of mechanical energy |

Conservative and nonconservative forces |

Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions |

Rotational Motion |
2 |
Centre of mass or a two-particle system |

Centre of mass of a rigid body |

Basic concepts of rotational motions |

Moment of a force |

Torque |

Angular Momentum |

Conservation of angular momentum and its applications |

Moment of inertia |

Angular mnomentum |

Radius of gyration |

Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical |

Objects |

Parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications |

Rigid body rotation |

Equations of rotational motion |

Gravitation |
1 or 0 |
The univeral law of gravitarion |

Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth |

Keplers laws or planetary motion |

Gravitational potential energy |

Gravitational potential |

Escape velocity |

Orbital velocity of a satellite |

Geo-stationary satellites |

Properties of Solids and Liquids |
1 or 2 |
Elastic behaviour |

Stress-strain relationship |

Hooke's Law |

Young’s modulus |

Bulk modulus |

Modulus of rigidity |

Pressure due to a fluid column |

Pascal’s law and its applications. |

Viscosity |

Stokes’ law |

Terminal velocity |

Streamline and turbulent flow |

Reynolds number |

Bernoulli’s principle and its applications |

Surface energy and surface tension |

Angle of contact |

Application of surface tension |

Drops, bubbles and capillary rise |

Heat |

Temperature |

Thermal expansion |

Specific heat capacity |

Calorimetry |

Change or state |

Latent heat |

Heat transfer-conduction |

Convection and radiation |

Newton's law of cooling |

Thermodynamics |
1 or 2 |
Thermal equilibrium |

Zeroth law of thermodynamics |

Concept of temperature |

Heat, work and internal energy |

First law of thermodynamics |

Second law of thermodynamics |

Reversible and irreversible processes |

Carnot engine and its efficiency |

Kinetics theory of Gases |
1 |
Equation of state of a perfect gas |

Work doneon compressing a gas |

Kinetic theory or gases - assumptions |

Concept of pressure |

Kinetic energy and temperature |

Rms speed of gas molecules |

Degrees of freedom |

Law or equipartition of energy |

Applications to specific heat capacities or gases |

Mean free path |

Avogadro's number |

Oscillations and Waves |
2 |
Periodic motion |

Period |

Frequency |

Displacement as a function of time |

Periodic functions |

Simple harmonic motion and its equation |

Phase |

Oscillations of a spring |

Restoring force and force constant |

Energy in S.H.M |

Kinetic and potential energies |

Simple pendulum |

Derivation or expression for its time period |

Free, forced and damped oscillations |

Resonance |

Wave motion |

Longitudinal and transverse waves |

Speed of a wave |

Displacement relation for a progressive wave |

Principle of superposition of waves |

Reflection of waves |

Standing waves in strings and organ pipes |

Fundamental mode and harmonics |

Beats |

Doppler effect in sound |

Electrostatics |
2 or 3 |
Electric charges |

Conservation of charge |

Coulomb's law-forces between two point charges |

Forces between multiple charges |

Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution |

Electric fIeld |

Electric field due to a point charge |

Electric field lines |

Electric dipole |

Fiectric field due to a dipole |

Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field |

Electric flux |

Gausss law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire |

Uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell |

Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge |

Electric dipole and system or charges |

Equipotential surfaces |

Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an Electrostatics field |

Conductors and insulators |

Dielectrics and electric polarization |

Capacitor |

Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel |

Capacitance or a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates |

Energy stored in a capacitator |

Current Electricity |
2 or 3 |
Electric current |

Drift velocity |

Ohm’s law |

Electrical resistance |

Resistances of different materials |

V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors |

Electrical energy and power |

Electrical resistivity |

Colour code for resistors |

Series and parallel combinations of resistors |

Temperature dependence of resistance |

Electric Cell and its Internal resistance |

Potential difference and emf of a cell |

Combination of cells in series and in parallel |

Kirchhoff's laws and their applications |

Wheatstone bridge |

Metre bridge |

Potentiometer and its principle and its applications |

Magnetic effects of current and magnetism |
2 |
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop |

Amperes law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and
solenoid |

Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields |

Cyclotron |

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field |

Force between two parallel current carrying conductors |

Defination of ampere |

Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field |

Moving coil galvanometer and its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter |

Curment loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment |

Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid |

Magnetic field lines |

Earth's magnetic field and Magnetic Elements |

Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substance |

Magnetic susceptibility and permeability |

Hysteresis |

Electromagnets and Permanent Magnets |

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents |
1 or 2 |
Electromagnetic induction |

Faraday's law |

Induced emf and current |

Lenz's Law |

Eddy currents |

Self and mutual inductance |

Alternating currents |

Peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage |

Reactance and impedance |

LCR series circuit |

Resonance |

Quality factor |

Power in AC circuits |

Wattless current |

AC generator and transformer |

Optics |
2 or 3 |
Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces |

Mirror formula |

Total intemnal reflection and its applications |

Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism |

Lens Formula |

Magnification |

Power of a Lens |

Combination of thin lenses in contact |

Microscope and Astronomical Telescope and their magnifying powers |

Wave optics |

Wavefront and Huygens' principle |

Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle |

Interference |

Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width |

Coherent sources and sustained interference of light |

Diffraction due to a single slit |

Width of central maximum |

Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes |

Polansation |

Plane polarized light |

Brewster’s law |

Uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids |

Dual Nature of Matter and radiation |
1 |
Dual nature of radiation |

Photoelectric effect |

Hertz and Ienard’s observations |

Einstein's photoelectric equation |

Particle nature of light |

Matter waves-wave nature of particle and Broglie relation |

Davisson-Germer experiment |

Atoms and Nuclei |
1 |
Alpha-particle scatiering experiment |

Rutherford's model of atom |

Bohr model |

Energy levels |

Hydrogen spectrum |

Composition and size of nucleus |

Atomic masses |

Isotopes |

Isobars |

Isotones |

Radioactivity |

Alpha. beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties |

Radioactive decay law |

Mass-energy relation |

Mass defect |

Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number |

Nuclear fission and fusion |

Electronic Devices |
1 |
Semiconductors |

Semiconductor diode |

1-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias |

Diode as a rectifier |

I-V chanactcristics or LED |

Photodiode |

Solar cell and Zener diode |

Zener diode as a voltage regulator |

Junction transistor |

Transistor action |

Characteristics or a transistor |

Transistor as an amplifier and oscillator |

Logic gates |

Transistor as a switch |

Communications System |
1 or 0 |
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere |

Sky and space wave propagation |

Need for modulation |

Amplitude and Frequency Modulation |

Bandwidth of signals |

Bandwidth of Transmission medium |

Basic Elements of a Communication System |

Experimental Skills |
3 |
Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experimnents and activitics |

Vennier callipers and its use to measure internal and external diameter and depth of a vessel |

Screw gauge and its use to determine thickncss/diameter of thin sheet/wire |

Simple Pendulum-dissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time |

Meter Scale and mass or a given object by principle of moments |

Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire |

Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents |

Co-efficient or Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity ofa given spherical body |

Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time |

Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube |

Specific heat capacity of a given in solid and and liquid by method of mixtures |

Resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge |

Resistance of a given wire using Ohm's law |

Potentiometer |

Comparison or emf of two primary cells |

Determination of internal resistance of a cell |

Recitance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method |

Focal length of |

Convex mirror |

Concave mirror |

Convex Iens using parallex method |

Plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism |

Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope |

Characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias |

Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and tinding reverse break down voltage |

Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain |

Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from mixed collection of such
items |

Using multimeter to |

Identify base of a transistor |

Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistor |

See the undirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED |

Check the correctness or otherwise of a given electronic component |

Chemistry |
Some Basic Concepts In Chemistry |
1 |
Matter and its Nature |

Dalton’s Atomic Theory |

Concept of Atom, Molecule, Element and Compound |

Physical quantities and their Measurements in Chemistry |

Precision and Accuracy |

Significant Figures |

S.I Units |

Dimensional Analysis |

Laws of Chemical Combination |

Atomic and Molecular Masses |

Mole Concept |

Molar Mass |

Percentage Composition |

Empirical and Molecular formulae |

Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry |

States of Matter |
1 |
Gaseous State |

Measurable properties or gases |

Gas laws |

Boyle’s Iaw |

Charles law |

Graham's law of diffusion |

Avogadro’s law and Dalton’s law of partial pressure |

Concept of Absolute scale of temperature |

Ideal gas equation |

Kinetic theory of gases |

Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities |

Real gases |

Deviation from Ideal behaviour |

Compressibility factor and van der Waals equation |

Liquid State |

Properties of liquids |

Vapour pressure |

Viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them |

Solid State |

Classification of solids |

Molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids |

Elementary Idea of amorphous and crystalline solids |

Bragg’s Law and its applications |

Unit cell and lattices |

Packing in solids |

Voids |

Calculations involving unit cell parameters |

Imperfection in solids |

Electrical and magnetic properties |

Atomic Structure |
0 |
Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their Limitations |

Nature of electromagnetic radiation |

Photoelectric effect |

Spectrum of hydrogen atom and its postulates |

Bohr model of hydrogen atom and its postulates |

Derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits |

Limitations of Bohr’s model |

Dual nature of matter |

de-Broglie's relationship |

Heisenberg uncertainty principle |

Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics |

Quantum mechanical model of atom and its important features |

Concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions |

Various quantum numbers and their significance |

Shapes of s, p and d orbitals |

Electron spin and spin quantum number |

Rules for filling electrons in orbitals |

Aufbau principle |

Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule |

Electronic configuration of elements |

Extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals |

Kossel |

Chemical Bonding And Molecular Structure |
3 |
Lewis approach to chemical bond formation |

Concept of ionic and covalent bonds |

Ionic Bonding and Formation of ionic bonds |

Factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds |

Calculation of lattice enthalpy |

Covalent Bonding |

Concept of electronegativity |

Fajan's rule |

Dipole moment |

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory and shapes of simple molecules |

Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding |

Valence bond theory and Its important features |

Concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals |

Resonance |

Molecular Orbital Theory and Its important features |

LCAOs |

Types of molecular orbitals |

Sigma and pi-bonds |

Molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules |

Concept of bond order |

Bond length and bond energy |

Elementary idea of metallic bonding |

Hydrogen bonding and its applications |

Chemical Thermodynamics |
1 |
Fundamentals of Thermodynamics |

System and surroundings |

Extensive and intensive properties |

State functions |

Types of processes |

First law or thermodynamics |

Concept of work, heat, internal energy and enthalpy |

Heat capacity and molar heat capacity |

Hess’s law of constant heat summation |

Enthalpies of bond dissociation |

Combustion |

Formation |

Atomization |

Sublimation |

Phase transition |

Hydration |

Ionization and solution |

Second law of thermodynamics |

Spontaneity of processes |

∆S of the universe and ∆G of the system as criteria for spontaneity |

Standard Gibbs energy change and equilibrium constant |

Solutions |
1 |
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution |

Molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage, vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law |

Ideal and non-ideal solutions |

Composition of Vapour pressure |

Plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions |

Colligative properties of dilute solutions |

Relative lowering of vapour pressure |

Depression of freezing point |

Elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure |

Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties |

Abnormal value of molar mass |

Van't Hoff factor and its significance |

Equilibrium |
3 |
Meaning of equilibrium |

Concept of dynamic equilibrium |

Equilibria involving physical processes |

Solid -liquid, liquid - gas and solid - gas equilibria |

Henry's law |

General characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes |

Equilibria involving chemical processes |

Law of chemical equilibrium |

Equilibrium constants and their significance |

Significance of ∆G and ∆G' in chemical equilibriain chemical equilibria |

Factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure and temperature |

Effect of catalyst |

Le Chatelier's principle |

Ionic equilibrium |

Weak and strong electrolytes |

Ionization of electrolytes |

Various concepts of acids and bases and their ionization |

Acid - base equilibria and ionization constants |

Ionization of water |

pH scale |

Common ion effect |

Hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions |

Solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products |

Buffer solutions |

Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry |
2 |
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction |

Redox reactions |

Oxidation number |

Rules for assigning oxidation number |

Balancing of redox reactions |

Eectrolytic and metallic conduction |

Conductance in electrolytic solutions |

Molar conductivities and their variation with concentration |

Kohlrausch's law and its applications |

Electrochemical cells |

Electrolytic and Galvanic cells |

Different types of electrodes |

Electrode potentials including standard electrode potential |

Half-cell and cell reactions |

Emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement |

Nernst equation and its applications |

Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs' energy change |

Dry cell and lead accumulator |

Fuel cells |

Chemical Kinetics |
1 |
Rate of a chemical reaction |

Factors affecting the rate of reactions |

Concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst |

Elementary and complex reactions |

Order and molecularity of reactions |

Rate law |

Rate constant and its units |

Differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions and their characteristics |

Half -lives |

Effect of temperature on rate of reactions |

Arrhenius theory |

Activation energy and its calculation |

Collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions |

Surface Chemistry |
1 |
Adsorption |

Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteritics |

Factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids |

Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms |

Adsorption from solutions |

Catalysis |

Homogeneous and heterogeneous |

Activity and selectivity of solid catalysts |

Enzyme catalysis and its mechanism |

Colloidal state |

Distinction among true solutions |

Colloids and suspensions |

classification of colloids |

Lyophilic and lyophobic |

Multimolecular |

Macromolecular and associated colloids |

Preparation and properties of colloids |

Tyndall effect |

Brownian movement |

Electrophoresis |

Dialysis |

Coagulation and flocculation |

Emulsions and their characteristics |

Classification of elements and periodicity in properties |
0 |
Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table s, p, d and f block elements |

Periodic trends in properties of elements atomic and ionic radii |

Ionization enthalpy |

Electron gain enthalpy |

Valence |

Oxidation states and chemical reactivity |

General principles and process of Isolation of metals |
1 or 2 |
Mode of occurrence of elements in nature |

Minerals |

Ores |

Steps involved in the extraction or metals |

Concentration |

Reduction and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe |

Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals |

Hydrogen |
1 |
Position of hydrogen in periodie table |

Isotopes |

Preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen |

Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water |

Structure and preparation of hydrogen peroxide |

Reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide |

Classification of hydrides |

Ionic, covalent and interstitial |

Hydrogen as a fuel |

S - Block Elements - Alkali and Alkaline earth metals |
0 |
General Introduction of Group 1 and 2 Elements |

Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elemenis |

Anomalous properties of the first element of each group |

Diagonal relationships |

Preparation und properties of some important compounds |

Sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate |

Industrial uses of lime, limestone Plaster or Paris and cement |

Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca |

P - Block Elements |
2 |
General Introduction of Group 13 to 18 Elements |

Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups |

Unique behaviour or the first element in each group |

P - Block Elements - Group 13 Elements |
0 |
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium |

Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, dihoranc, boron irifnuoride, aluminium chloride and alums |

Structure, properties and uses of boric acid |

Structure, properties and uses of dihoranc |

Structure, properties and uses of boron irifnuoride |

Structure, properties and uses of aluminium chloride and alums |

P - Block Elements - Group 14 Elements |
0 |
Tendency for catenation |

Structure, properties and uses of Allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates. zcolites and silicones |

P - Block Elements - Group 15 Elements |
0 |
Properties and uses or nitrogen and phosphorus |

Allotrophic forms of phosphorus |

Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides |

Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus |

P - Block Elements - Group 16 Elements |
0 |
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of ozone |

Allotropic forms or sulphur |

Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphuric acid |

Structures of oxoacids of Sulphur |

P - Block Elements - Group 17 Elements |
0 |
Preparation, properties and uses of hydrochloric acid |

Trends in lhe acidic nature of hydrogen halides |

Structures or lntcrhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens |

P - Block Elements - Group 18 Elements |
0 |
Occurrence and uses of noble gases |

Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon |

d and f - Block Elements |
1 |
Transition Elements |

General introduction |

Electronic configuration |

Occurrence and characteristics |

General trends in properties of the first row transition elements |

Physical properties |

Ionization enthalpy |

Oxidation states |

Atomic radii |

Colour and catalytic behaviour |

Magnetic properties |

Complex formation |

Interstitial compounds |

Alloy formation |

Preparation, properties and uses of K, Cr, O, and KMnO4 |

Inner Transition Elcments |

Electronic configuration of Lanthanoids |

Oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction |

Electronic configuration and oxidation states of Actinoids |

Co-ordinations Compound |
1 or 2 |
Introduction to co-ordination compounds |

Werner's theory |

Ligands |

Co-ordination number |

Denticity |

Chelation |

IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds |

Isomerism |

Bonding |

Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory |

Colour and magnetic properties |

Importance of co-ordination compounds |

Environmental Chemistry |
0 |
Enviromental pollution |

Atmospheric, waler and soil |

Atmospheric pollution |

Tropospheric and Stratospheric |

Tropospheric pollutunts |

Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons and their sources |

Harmful effects and prevention |

Green house effect and Global warming |

Acid rain |

Particulate pollutants |

Smoke, dust, smog. fumes, mist and their sources |

Stratospheric pollution |

Formation and breakdown of ozone |

Depletion or ozone layer and its mechanism and effects |

Water Pollution |

Major pollutants such as pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants and their harmful effects and prevention |

Soil pollution |

Major pollutants such as Pesticides their harmful effects and prevention |

Strategies to control enviromental pollution |

Purification and Characteristics of Organic Compounds |
0 |
Purification |

Crystallization |

Sublimation |

Distillation |

Differential extract ion and chromatography |

Principles and their applications |

Qualitative analysis |

Detection of Nitrogen, Sulphur, Phosphorus and Halogens |

Quantitative analysis |

Estimation of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Halogens, Sulphur and Phosphonus |

Calculations or empirical formulae and molecular formulae |

Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis |

Some Basic Priniples of Organic Chemistry |
1 |
Tetravalency of carbon |

Shapes of simple molecules |

Hybridization of S and P |

Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur |

Homologous series |

Isomerism |

Structural and stereoisomerism |

Nomenclature of Trivial and IUPAC |

Covalent bond fission |

Homolytic and heterolytic |

Free radicals |

Carbocations and carbanions |

Stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles |

Electronic displacement in a covalent bond |

Inductive effect |

Electromeric effect |

Resonance and hyperconjugation |

Common types of organic reactions |

Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement |

Hydrocarbons |
2 |
Classification |

Isomerism |

IUPAC nomenclature |

General methods of preparation, properties and reactions |

Alkanes |

Conformations |

Sawhorse and Newman projections |

Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes |

Alkenes |

Geometrical isomerism |

Mechanism of electrophilic addition |

Addition of hydrogen, halogens,water, hydrogen halides |

Ozonolysis and polymerization |

Alkynes |

Acidic character |

Addition of hydrogen. halogens. water and hydrogen halides |

Polymerization |

Aromatic hydrocarbons |

Nomenclature |

Benzene |

Structure and aromaticity |

Mechanism of electrophilic substitution |

Halogenation |

Nitration |

Friedel-Craft’s alkylation and acylation |

Directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene |

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens |
0 |
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions |

Nature of C-X bond |

Mechanisms of substitution reactions |

Uses |

Environmental effects of chloroform |

Iodoform freons and DDT |

Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen |
3 |
General Methods of Preparation, Properties, Reactions and Uses |

Alcohols |

Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols |

Mechanism of dehydration |

Phenols |

Acidic nature |

Electrophilic substitution reactions |

Halogenation, nitration and suiphonation |

Reimer-Tiemann reaction |

Ethers |

Structure |

Aldehyde and Ketones |

Nature of carbonyl group |

Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group |

Relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones |

Important reactions such as - Nucleophilic addition reactions |

Grignard reagent |

Oxidation |

Reduction |

Acidity of α-hydrogen |

Aldol condensation |

Cannizzaro reaction |

Haloform reaction |

Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones |

Carboxylic Acids |

Acidic strength and factors affecting it |

Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen |
1 |
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. |

Amines |

Nomenclature |

Classification |

Structure |

Basic character and identitication of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character |

Diazonium Salts |

Importance in synthetic organic chemistry |

Polymers |
1 |
General introduction and classification of polymers |

General methods of polymerization, addition and condensation |

Copolymerization |

Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization |

Some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses |

Polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite |

Biomolecules |
1 |
General introduction and importance or biomolecules |

Classification of Carbohydrates |

Aldoses and ketoses |

Monosaccharides and constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides |

Proteins |

Elementary Idea of α-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides |

Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of Proteins |

Denaturation of proteins and enzymes |

Classification and functions of Vitamins |

Nucleic Acid |

Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA |

Biological functions of nucleic acids |

Chemistry in Everyday life |
1 or 2 |
Chemicals in medicines |

Chemicals in food |

Cleansing agents |

Principles related to pratical chemistry |
1 or 0 |
Detection of extra eIements in organic compounds |

Detection of the following functional groups |

Alcoholic and phenolic |

Aldehyde and ketone |

Carboxyl and amino groups in organic compound |

Chemiiry involved in the preraration or the following |

Inorganic compounds |

Mohrs salt |

Potash Alum |

Organic compounds |

Acetanilide |

Pnitroacetanilide |

Aniline yellow |

Iodoform |

Chemistry involved in the titrmetric exercise |

Acids, bases and the use of indicators |

Oxalic-acid vs |

Mohr's salt vs KMnO4 |

Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis |

Cations |

Anions |

Chemical principles involved in the following experiments |

Enthalpy of solution of cuSO4 |

Eathalpy or neutralization of strong acid and strong base |

Preparation of Lyophilic and Lyophobic sols |

Kinetic study or reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature |