Solid State

Molecular, Ionic, Covalent and Metallic Solids, Amorphous and Crystalline Solids

I. Types of crystalline solids:{Tips}

S.NO Types of Solid Inter molecular forces
Properties Examples
1. Ionic Ion-ion forces Brittle, hard high melting NaCl, KCl, MgCl2
2. Molecular Dispersion forces/Dipole-Dipole/H-bond Soft, low melting, non-conducting H2O, Br2, CO2, CH4, Ar
3. Covalent (or) network Covalent bonds Hard: High melting Diamond, SiO2
4. Metallic Metallic bonds Variable hardness and melting point good conducting nature All metals (Na, Zn, Cu----)

 II. Types of solid: {Tips}

S.NO Crystalline solids Amorphous solids
1. They have a defined crystal shape They do not have a defined geometrical shape
2. Long-range order Short-range order
3. They have sharp melting point They do not have sharp melting point
4. Enthalpy of fusion is definite Enthalpy of fusion is not definite
5. They are hard and rigid They are comparatively soft and not very rigid
6. Possess definite crystal system (Cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, octahedral, etc.) Crystal system absent; no regular repeating unit
7. They are true solid They are pseudo solid
8. They split into two pieces when cut with a sharp edged tool; newly generated surfaces are plain and smooth They cut into two pieces with irregular surfaces when cut with a sharp-edged tool.
9. They are anisotropic (refractive index and electrical conductivity are different in different directions)
(eg: NaCl, CsBr, CaF2 & ZnS)

They are isotropic (physical properties are same in all directions
(eg: Rubber, Plastic and glass).

 Trick for types of solid:

(1) All ionic, metallic, solids are crystalline solids

(2) All polymers, rubber derivatives, glass materials are amorphous solids.

Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 0:07 to 9:07

Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 0:07 to 11:13

Part3: View the Topic in this Video from 0:07 to 9:17

Part4: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 14:53

Part5: View the Topic in this Video from 0:07 to 12:08

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