General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals
Principles of Metallurgy(Thermodynamic and Electrochemical)
Dow’s process is the commercial method of obtaining magnesium from oceans as Mg+2 are the third most abundant ions in sea water.
Electrolytic refining is also done for crude tin.
Iron is obtained by smelting of haematite in a blast furnace.
a) Roasted ore, coke, and limestone are mixed in the weight ratio 8:4:1. It is called charge and it is fed in to the blast furnace. Pig iron is obtained, it is most impure metal.
b) Cast iron is prepared by melting pig iron. It contains 3% of Carbon.
c) Wrought iron is the purest form of iron containing about 0.2% of carbon. It is prepared by heating cast iron in a reverberatory furnace.
d) Steel contains a lower percentage of carbon and other impurities than the pig iron.
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