Chemistry in Everyday Life

Soaps and detergents, cleansing action

(i) SOAPS:- They are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. They are obtained by the saponification reaction, when fatty acids are heated with aqueous sodium hydroxide.
They do not work well in hard water.
(ii) TOILET SOAP:- These are prepared by using better grade of fatty acids and excess of alkali needs to be removed. Colour & perfumes are added to make them attractive.
(iv) MEDICATED SOAPS:- Substances of medicinal value are added. Eg- Bithional, dettol.

2. SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS:- They are cleaning agents having properties of soaps, but actually contain no soap. They can used in both soft and hard water. They are-
(i) ANIONIC DETERGENTS:- They are sodium salts of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons. Eg-sodium lauryl sulphonate . They are effective in acidic solution.
(ii)CATIONIC DETERGENTS:- They are quaternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates, chlorides, or bromides. They are expensive used to limited extent. eg:- cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide
(iii) NON-IONIC DETERGENTS:- They do not contain any ions. Some liquid dish washing detergents are of non-ionic type.

3. BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS:- The detergents which are linear and can be attacked by micro-organisms are biodegradable.
Eg -sodium 4-(1-dodecyl) benzene sulphonate.

4. NON - BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS:- The detergents which are branched and cannot be decomposed by microorganisms are called non-biodegradable. Eg-sodium 4-(1,3,5,7 tetramethyloctyl)-benzene sulphonate. It creates water pollution.

Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 8:00

Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 5:48

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