Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Pollination - types, agencies and examples

  1. Pollination refers to the process of transfer of pollen grains on to the stigma of the flower, which is a pre-requisite for fertilization.
  2. Self-pollination is transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of either the same (or) genetically similar flower.
  3. Self-pollination is of 2 types (i) autogamy [Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to a stigma of the same flower]. (ii) Geitonogamy [Pollination between genetically similar plants.]
  4. Cleistogamy (Closed flowers – Pisum, Lathyrus, Commelina) and chasmogamy are the contrivances for self-pollination.
  5. Self-pollination maintains pure lines and the parental characters and ensures seed production by eliminating some bad recessive characters.
  6. The major disadvantage of self-pollination is the reduction of immunity, variability and adaptability.
  7. Cross pollination refers to the deposition of pollen grains from anther of a lower to the stigma of a different flower that happens only through an agent.
  8. Anemophily is an abiotic means of pollination by wind, where the pollen grains are light, small, dry but non-sticky and convertible.
  9. Examples: Maize, grass, Amaranthus, palm, Cannabis, Mulberry.
  10. Pollination by water is called Hydrophily that is of 2 types (i) Epihydrophily (surface pollination) Eg. Vallisneria (ii) Hypohydrophily (inside water) Eg. Najas, Zostera, Ceratophyllum.
  11. Wind and water pollinated flowers are not colourful and they do not produce any nectar.
  12. The most common pollinators are insects (eg. Wasp, bees, beetles) that pollinate the flowers of Asteraceae and Labiatae family.
  13. Most insect pollinated flowers have a landing plant platform, special markings on petals to guide insects.
  14. Edible pollens are produced by Rosa, Clematis and Magnolia etc.
  15. Zoophily is a type of pollination carried out by animals which is divided into many kinds based on the type of animal.
  16. Malacophily – tropics, birds
  17. Ophiophily – Snake
  18. Ornithophily – birds
  19. Chiropterophily – bats.
  20. Myrmecophily – ants Eg: some members of Rubiaceae.
  21. Cross pollination develops immunity, variation and adaptation is a newly formed progeny but some undesirable characters may creep in the race.

Part-1: Watch this video for the topic from 1:13 to 48:08

Part-2: Watch this video for the topic from 0:44 to 55:38

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