Organisms and Populations
Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism
- Positive interaction includes mutualism/symbiosis/co-evolution, commensalism, proto-cooperation and scavengers.
- Mutualism (+/+) in organisms much possess obligate relationship. Eg: Termites – A flagellates ; Yucca – Pronuba (moth)
- Proto cooperation (+/+) exist in organisms with non-obligate relationship. Eg: Birds removing pest over the skin of animals self/cross pollination.
- Communalism (+/0) where one organism is benefited and other is almost unaffected. Eg: Epiphytes
- Exploitation, Amensalism, Competition are the three types of Negative interaction.
- Parasitism (+ : small / − : large) and predation (+ : large / − : small) are the 2 types of Exploitation.
- Hyper parasitism is when a parasite resides on another parasite. (Eg: Plasmodium residing in anopheles mosquito).
- Amensalism (−/0) is of 2 types Antibiosis and Allelopathy.
- Eg for Antibiosis
(i) Penicillium → Staphylococcus
(ii) Chlorello → Bacteria
(iii) BGA (microcystis) → Fishes by the production of Hydroxylamine.
- Allelopathy is when plants producing toxic chemicals. Eg: Parthenium → Toxic chemical → Cassia tora
- Silver oak shows autopathy.
- Competition is the interaction b/w 2 species where both suffers (−/−) which is of 2 types interspecific and intraspecific.
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