Microbes in Human Welfare
Energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers
- Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant disease and pests.
- For example, Ladybird beetle feeds on aphids, whereas dragonflies prey on mosquitoes similarly Trichoderma biocontrols several plant pathogens.
- The most widely used microbial pesticides are the strains and subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).
- Baculoviruses are harmful pathogens that attack insects and other arthropods.
- Nucleo polyhedral virus is the majority of baculoviruses that are used as biological control agents.
- Biofertilizers are organisms which enrich the soil by enhancing the availability of nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen to the crops.
- Biofertilizers are of three types (i) Nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria, (ii) N2 fixing bacteria and (iii) Mycorrhiza.
- Examples of free-living N2 fixing bacteria includes Azotobacter, Clostridium, Beijerinckia etc ;
- Rhizobium is the most important symbiotic N2 fixing bacteria that form nodules in legume plants. Other examples are R. lupine, R. trifoli , R. meliloti etc.,
- Mycorrhiza is of two types (i) Ectomycorrhiza and (ii) Endomycorrhiza.
- Ectomycorrhiza forms mantle one the surface of roots Eg. Basidiomycetes in Oak , Peach, Eucalyptus.
- Endomycorrhiza possesses hyphal tips into cortical cells and produces swollen vericles (Arbuscules) called as VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) Eg. Glomus.
Watch this video for the topic from 14:52 to 39:02
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