Microbes in Human Welfare
Antibiotics,production and judicious use, Challenges posed by microbes
- Waksman (1942) , introduced the term Antibiotic.
- The extracts of the fungus Penicillium notatum or its fungal body inhibits staphylococcus aureus and it was used to heal the wounded American soldiers in world war II.
- The 5 classes of antibiotics are (i) β - lactams (ii) Quinolones , (iii) Glycopeptides (iv) Aminoglycosides (v) Sulphonamides.
- Around 41 types of antibiotics were obtained from Streptomyces griseus and 60 Antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis.
- Antibiotics are of 2 types in general (i) Bacteriocidic and (ii) where the former type kills the bacterial cells and latter one will inhibit the growth of bacterial cells.
- Certain bacteria show resistance to the antibiotics due to the presence of only special plasmid (Eg. R. (Restistance plasmid)
- Examples of such type of bacterial cells (super bug) include NDM-1, Carbopenamases containing bacteria
- The development of copious mucilage, alteration of cell membrane, mutation or enzymes produced in a bacterial cells could be few reasons for the development of resistance.
- Usnea (Lichen) produces Usnic acid (Antibiotic)
- Penicillium species contribute antibiotics such as penicillin, Griseofulvin and patulin.
- Cephalosporium acremonium species of fungus produces cephalosporin.
- Aspergillus clavatus synthesizes clavacin.
- Some of the famous drugs are obtained from actinomycetes like streptomycin, chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, which have been isolated from Streptomyces species.
- Nowadays, antibiotics are modified with enhanced properties to produce Semisynthetic antibiotic, in which they are protected (from bacterial enzymes by steric hindrance.
- Antibiotics should be appropriately used. Self medication and prophylactic usage must be prohibited.
- Insufficient dosage of antibiotics could develop resistance in the forget bacteria.
- Cyclosporin ‘A’ is an immunosuppressive, anti - inflammatory and antifungal drug which inactivates T cells, produced from Trichoderma polysporum.
- Stating (drug) obtained from Monascus purpureus inhibits cholesterol synthesis by targeting HMG Co-A reductase. (Hydroxy methyl glutaryl)
Watch this video for the topic from 14:00 to 21:04
Disclaimer: Compete.etutor.co may from time to time provide links to third party Internet sites under their respective fair use policy and it may from time to time provide materials from such third parties on this website. These third party sites and any third party materials are provided for viewers convenience and for non-commercial educational purpose only. Compete does not operate or control in any respect any information, products or services available on these third party sites. Compete.etutor.co makes no representations whatsoever concerning the content of these sites and the fact that compete.etutor.co has provided a link to such sites is NOT an endorsement, authorization, sponsorship, or affiliation by compete.etutor.co with respect to such sites, its services, the products displayed, its owners, or its providers.