Microbes in Human Welfare

Antibiotics,production and judicious use, Challenges posed by microbes


  • Waksman (1942) , introduced the term Antibiotic.
  • The extracts of the fungus Penicillium notatum or its fungal body inhibits staphylococcus aureus and it was the used to heal the wounded American soldiers in world war II.
  • The 5 classes of antibiotics are (i) β - lactams (ii) Quinolones , (iii) Glycopeptides (iv) Aminoglycosides (v) Sulphonamides.
  • Around 41 types of antibiotics were obtained from Streptomyces griseus and 60 Antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis.
  • Antibiotics are of 2 types in general (i) Bacteriocidic and (ii) where the former type kills the bacterial cells and latter one will inhibit the growth of bacterial cells.
  • Certain bacteria show resistance to the antibiotics due to the presence of only special plasmid (Eg. R. (Restistance plasmid)
  • Examples of such type of bacterial cells (super bug) include NDM-1, Carbopenamases containing bacteria
  • The development of copious mucilage, alteration of cell membrane, mutation or enzymes produced in a bacterial cells could be few reasons for the development of resistance.
  • Usnea (Lichen) produces Usnic acid (Antibiotic)
  • Penicillium species contribute antibiotics such as penicillin, Griseofulvin and patulin.
  • Cephalosporium acremonium species of fungus produces cephalosporin.
  • Aspergillus clavatus synthesizes clavacin.
  • Some of the famous drugs are obtained from actinomycetes like streptomycin, chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, which have been isolated from Streptomyces species.
  • Nowadays, antibiotics are modified with enhanced properties to produce Semisynthetic antibiotic, in which they are protected (from bacterial enzymes by steric hindrance.
  • Antibiotics should be appropriately used. Self medication and prophylactic usage must be prohibited.
  • Insufficient dosage of antibiotics could develop resistance in the forget bacteria.
  • Cyclosporin ‘A’ is an immunosuppressive, anti - inflammatory and antifungal drug which inactivates T cells, produced from Trichoderma polysporum.
  • Stating (drug) obtained from Monascus purpureus inhibits cholesterol synthesis by targeting HMG Co-A reductase. (Hydroxy methyl glutaryl)

Watch this video for the topic from 14:00 to 21:04

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