Microbes in Human Welfare
Antibiotics,production and judicious use, Challenges posed by microbes
- Waksman (1942) , introduced the term Antibiotic.
- The extracts of the fungus Penicillium notatum or its fungal body inhibits staphylococcus aureus and it was the used to heal the wounded American soldiers in world war II.
- The 5 classes of antibiotics are (i) β - lactams (ii) Quinolones , (iii) Glycopeptides (iv) Aminoglycosides (v) Sulphonamides.
- Around 41 types of antibiotics were obtained from Streptomyces griseus and 60 Antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis.
- Antibiotics are of 2 types in general (i) Bacteriocidic and (ii) where the former type kills the bacterial cells and latter one will inhibit the growth of bacterial cells.
- Certain bacteria show resistance to the antibiotics due to the presence of only special plasmid (Eg. R. (Restistance plasmid)
- Examples of such type of bacterial cells (super bug) include NDM-1, Carbopenamases containing bacteria
- The development of copious mucilage, alteration of cell membrane, mutation or enzymes produced in a bacterial cells could be few reasons for the development of resistance.
- Usnea (Lichen) produces Usnic acid (Antibiotic)
- Penicillium species contribute antibiotics such as penicillin, Griseofulvin and patulin.
- Cephalosporium acremonium species of fungus produces cephalosporin.
- Aspergillus clavatus synthesizes clavacin.
- Some of the famous drugs are obtained from actinomycetes like streptomycin, chloramphenicol, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, which have been isolated from Streptomyces species.
- Nowadays, antibiotics are modified with enhanced properties to produce Semisynthetic antibiotic, in which they are protected (from bacterial enzymes by steric hindrance.
- Antibiotics should be appropriately used. Self medication and prophylactic usage must be prohibited.
- Insufficient dosage of antibiotics could develop resistance in the forget bacteria.
- Cyclosporin ‘A’ is an immunosuppressive, anti - inflammatory and antifungal drug which inactivates T cells, produced from Trichoderma polysporum.
- Stating (drug) obtained from Monascus purpureus inhibits cholesterol synthesis by targeting HMG Co-A reductase. (Hydroxy methyl glutaryl)
Watch this video for the topic from 14:00 to 21:04
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