Biotechnology and its Applications
Gene therapy, Molecular Diagnosis,ELISA
- Technique of Genetic Engineering to change a faulty gene by a healthy functional gene is called gene therapy, which was performed to a 4 year old girl with Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency which will lead to severe combined Immuno deficiency (SCID).
- Germline and somatic cell gene therapy are the two types of gene therapy out of which somatic cell therapy is only permitted.
- The gene ADA was introduced into lymphocytes, which was extracted from the bone marrow and then re-injected to the patient’s bone marrow.
- Periodic infusion of the genetically engineered lymphocytes was the only drawback of this technique.
- Early detection is possible only by rDNA Technology, PCR, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay).
- Specific DNA is identified from thousands of each by blotting technique.
- Southern blotting – DNA identification, Northern blotting – RNA identification and Western blotting – Protein identification
- Molecular probes [ss DNA with radioactive isotopes] are available for genetic disorders such a Tay-Sachs, Muscular dystrophy etc.,
- It is based on the Antigen-Antibody interaction and even can detect a very small amount of protein with the help of Horse-Radish Peroxidase (or) Alkaline Phosphatase enzyme, which produces coloured solution to detect the presence of disease causing gene in the sample.
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