 Concept of Oxidation and Reduction

1 amu = 1.66 × 10×-24 gm
amu = \frac{1}{12} \times \frac{12}{6\times10^{23}} = 0.166 \times 10^{-23}g
1 amu = \frac{1}{N_{A}} Limiting reagent (L.R) :
The reactant of a reaction which reacts completely According to balanced reactions
1 mole N2 → 3mole H2
2mole N2 → 6 mole H2
L.R = H2
3 mole H2 → 1mole N2
5mole H2 → 5/3 mole of N2
mole of N2 remained unreacted = 2 − 5/3
= 1/3

Mole of NH3 formed :
3mole H2 → 2mole of NH3
5mole of H2\frac{5 \times 2}{3} = \frac{10}{3} = 3.33

% of purity : 100 gram — 22.4
9 gram — \frac{9 \times 22.4}{100}
[Since wt of CaCO3
\frac{10 \times 90}{100} = 9 \ gram]
\tt \% \ of \ purity = \frac{wt. of \ pure \ compound}{wt. of \ impure \ compound} \times 100

Oxidising agent (or) oxidant :
Which undergoes reduction i.e gain of e

Reducing agent (or) reductant :
Which undergoes oxidation (or) which loses electron Types of Redox Reactions :
Combination Reaction : E.wt of 'C' = \frac{12}{4} = 3g
E.wt of 'O' = \frac{16}{2} = 8g E.wt of Mg = \frac{24}{2} = 12g
E.wt of N_{2} = \frac{14}{3}g
Note : Neutralisation reactions are not redox reaction. Decomposition reaction : Displacement reactions :
Metal displacement reactions Non - metal displacement reactions :
F2 + 2KCl → 2KF + Cl2
F2 + 2KBr → 2KF + Br2
F2 + 2KI → 2KF + I2

Disproportional reactions :
Note : {Halogen, P, S are disproportional}
In this reaction the same substance undergoes both oxidation and reduction. Comproportional reactions : View the Topic in this Video from 0:40 to 46:40

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1. Eq. wt. of oxidant/reductant = \tt \frac{molar \ mass}{change \ in \ oxidation \ number}

2. For disproportionation reaction,
Eq. wt. of oxidant/reductant = sum of eq. wt. of two half reactions

3. Eq. wt. of O.A. = \tt \frac{molecular \ weight}{No. \ of \ electrons \ gained \ by \ one \ molecule}

4. Eq. wt. of R.A. = \tt \frac{molecular \ weight}{No. \ of \ electrons \ lost \ by \ one \ molecule}