Living World

Taxonomic aids, museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens

  • Techniques that are useful in the identification and classification of organisms are taxonomic aids.
  • A collection of plants which are dried, pressed and preserved on herbarium sheets are called Herbarium, which is kept systematically according to a standard system of classification.
  • A holotype is a sheet on which the first description of the plant is based
  • Second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is Lectotype
  • Addition herbarium sheet used in the first description of the plant (Prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations) is called paratype.
  • Isotype is the duplication of the holotype
  • In case the holotype and original plant are lost, then many sheets are prepared many plants of same species that are called syntype.
  • Taxonomic keys are a list of statements used to identify organisms by selection and rejection method.
  • Each statement in keys has a lead and couplet (contrasting characters)
  • Two types of keys are bracketed and yolked (indented).
  • A botanical garden is a collection of living plants and the most famous botanical garden is at Kew, London.
  • Moscow has the largest botanical garden.
  • A museum is a place to store, preserve and exhibit the objects of natural history, art and objects of natural antiquities.
  • The enlarged areas where animals are kept in open enclosure is called zoological park which is used to study the food habits of wild animals.
  • Zoological parks are useful for ex-situ conservation through captive breeding of endangered animals.

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