Digestion and Absorption

Digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea

  • PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition) is an important nutritional problem among 1-5 years old kids. PEM is of two types : Kwashiorkor and marasmus. This is due to lack of adequate amount of protein (or) carbohydrate or both.
  • Deficiency symptoms of kwashiorkar are retarded growth of body and brain, swelling of legs due to edema, reddish hair, pot belly, weak muscles, thin limbs and diarrhoea. It usually affect 1-5 year old children.
  • Marasmus (affects < 1 year old infants), causes impaired growth and replacement of tissue proteins, thin limbs, prominent ribs, dry and wrinkled thin skin and diarrhoea. PEM can recover if adequate quantities of protein and carbohydrate rich food are given.
  • Indigestion is caused by intolerance to an ingredient of food, improper chewing and swallowing, inadequate digestive enzyme and gasterointestinal hormones, over eating, spicy food consumption, defect in stomach (eg : hyperchlorohydia) and food poisoning.
  • Constipation is irregular (or) in frequent defecation causes by reduced roughage content in diet, decreased motility of the intestine, spasms of the colon, lack of exercise emotional stress etc., Mild laxative, fibre rich diet and ---- exercise, increasing fluid intake induces defecation.
  • Vomiting is forcible expulsion of the contents of stomach through the mouth. Excess vomiting can lead to dehydration since large amount of HCl is lost, the blood becomes alkaline. This reflex action is controlled by vomit centre in the medulla oblongate of the brain.
  • Prehepatic Jaundice is a syndrome caused by excess production of bilirubin, hepatic jaundice is due to congenital liver disease (cirrhosis), extrahepatic jaundice is due to blockage of bile drainage by gall stones (or) cancer of the bowel or pancreas.
  • Diarrhoea is an increased frequency and liquidity of faeces caused by increased motility and decreased absorption by the intestines. This excessive motility may be caused by viral (or) bacterial infection of GI tract, lactose intolerance, stress.

Watch this video for the topic Digestive disorders - PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea from 21:18 to 48:49

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