Breathing and Exchange of Gasses
Respiratory organs in animals,humans system
- Protozoans (Amoeba, Paramecium) respires through plasmalemma and pellicle.
- Sponges use plasma membrane of each cell to respire.
- Hydra like cnidarians respires through body wall and ctenophora too.
- Parasites of Flat worms and rounds worms undergo anaerobic respiration.
- Annelids undergo breathing through its body wall.
- Crayfish and prawn possess gills [branchial respiration]
- Tracheal respiration is present in insects, centipede, millipede, ticks and peripatus.
- Scorpions, spiders uses book lungs and Limulus (king crap) uses book gills.
- Hemi chordates, Urochordata and Cephalochordata involves pharyngeal wall to breathe.
- Gills arise in Cyclostomes and Fishes.
- Amphibians like frogs do breathe using skin, lungs, and buccopharyngeal cavity.
- Reptiles, Birds and Mammals consists of lungs for gaseous exchange.
- Human respiratory system is as follows. External nostrils → Nasal cavities → Internal Nares → Pharynx → larynx (glottis, epiglottis, Hyoid bone, Vocal cords) → Trachae (wind pipe) → Lungs (pulmones) → Bronchus → Bronchioles → Alveolar ducts → Alveoli (Acini).
- Vocal cords are made up of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
- Lower pair of vocal cords are true vocal cords.
- Glottis is covered by epiglottis (cartilaginous flap) that prevents food entry into windpipe.
- Pharynx is made up of stratified squamous and larynx is made up of ciliated columnar epithelium.
- Trachea contains rings of hyaline cartilage (incomplete at posterior part) to prevent the collapse of windpipe during inspiration.
- Left lung contains 2 lobes and right lung comprises 3 lobes.
- Below the lung, there exist diaphragm and left lung possess a cardiac notch, mediastinum, where heart is located.
- Lungs are located in thoracic cavity covered by pleural membrane supported by pleural fluid.
- Three types of bronchus are principal/primary, secondary/lobal and tertiary/segmental bronchus that possess hyaline cartilage.
- Internally bronchus divides into bronchioles which is of 3 types (i) Lobular (ii) Terminal and (iii) Respiratory.
- Alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium are the tissue characteristic in lungs.
- A surfactant layer made of lecithin is present in alveolar membrane to prevent the foam formation.
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