Electric Charges and Fields

Electric charge, Properties of Charge and Charging of Body

  • Electrostatics is the branch of physics which deals with the charges at rest.
  • Charge is the fundamental property of matter like mass.
  • Electric charges are of two types Positive charge and Negative charge
  • When a body looses electrons it is said to be Positive charge
  • When a body gains electrons it is said to be Negative charge
  • Mass of body decreases when it is positively charged.
  • Mass of body increases when it is negatively charged.
  • The root cause of two types of charges is the law of conservation of charge.
  • The net charge on neutral body is zero
  • Total charge is always the integral multiples of charge of electron Q = ne
  • Charge is quantized.
  • Charge obeys law of conservation of charge
  • Charge is invariant
  • A stationary charge produces only Electric field.
  • A charge in motion with acceleration in space produces both electric and magnetic fields.
  • A body can be charged by friction, conduction of induction.
  • Electrification by friction can be done by rubbing
  • Electrification by conduction is keeping charged body in contact with neutral body.
  • Conduction preceeds repulsion
  • In conduction both bodies attain same change.
  • Electrification by induction is the method of changing a body without keeping bodies in contact.
  • Induction always preceeds attraction.
  • Induced charge \tt q^{1} = q \left(1 - \frac{1}{K}\right) (K = dielectric charge)
  • Charge per unit length is called linear charge density (λ)
  • Unit of linear charge density is coulb/met
  • Charge per unit surface area is called Surface charge density
  • Unit of surface charge density is coulb/met2.
  • Charge per unit volume is called volume charge density
  • Unit of volume charge density is coulb/m3.
  • Charge given to a conductor always resides on the outer surface

View the Topic in this video From 10:55 To 20:55

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Quantisation of charge
Q on a body is always given by q = ne