# Temperature and Heat

• Heat is a form of energy which flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature
• Temperature is the relative hotness or coldness of a body
• One calorie is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water through 1°C
• Temperature is defined by zeroth law of thermodynamics.
• Thermometer is an instrument used to measure temperature
• In the celsius scale the lower fixed point is taken as 0°C and the upper fixed point is 100ºC divided in to 100 parts.
• In the Fahrenheit scale the lower fixed point is taken as 32° F and upper fixed point as 212° F divided into 180 parts.
• In the Reaumur scale lower fixed point as 0° R and upper fixed point as 80º R scale divided into 80 parts.
• In the kelvin scale lower fixed point is taken as 273.15 k and the upper fixed point as 373.15k scale divided in to 100 parts.
• Conversion of temperature from one scale to another is \tt \frac{Temperature \ on \ the \ scale - lower \ fixed \ point}{Upper \ fixed \ point-lower \ fixed \ point}
• Net volume of gas is zero at (-273:15°C) called Absolute zero
• At absolute zero entire molecular motion stops and total kinetic energy is zero.
• The triple point of water is the state at which the three phases of water in equilibrium.
• Temperature of triple point of water is 273.16 k and pressure is 0.46 cm of Hg.
• For constant volume air thermometer T = T0 × P/P0.

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Ideal-gas equation of aboslute temperature \tt \frac{PV}{T}=\mu R