Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques

Covalent bond fission, Homolytic fission and Heterolytic fission

Bond Fission :

Breaking of covalent bond of the compound is known as Bond Fission. A bond can be broken by two ways, depending upon the nature of given compound, the nature of attacking reagent and the reaction conditions.

(1) Homolytic Fission or Homolysis:
In homolysis, the covalent bond is broken in such a way that each resulting species gets its own electron. This leads to the formation of odd electron species known as free radical.

(2) Heterolytic Fission or Heterolysis:

  • In heterolysis, the covalent bond is broken in such a way that one species is deprived of its own electron, while the other species gains both the electrons. Thus formation of opposite charged species takes place.
  • If positive charge is present on the carbon, then cation is termed as carbocation (carbonium)
  • If negative charge is present on the carbon, then anion is termed as carbanion.

View the Topic in this Video from 36:30 to 45:10

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