# Electric charge, Properties of Charge and Charging of Body

• Electrostatics is the branch of physics which deals with the charges at rest.
• Charge is the fundamental property of matter like mass.
• Electric charges are of two types Positive charge and Negative charge
• When a body looses electrons it is said to be Positive charge
• When a body gains electrons it is said to be Negative charge
• Mass of body decreases when it is positively charged.
• Mass of body increases when it is negatively charged.
• The root cause of two types of charges is the law of conservation of charge.
• The net charge on neutral body is zero
• Total charge is always the integral multiples of charge of electron Q = ne
• Charge is quantized.
• Charge obeys law of conservation of charge
• Charge is invariant
• A stationary charge produces only Electric field.
• A charge in motion with acceleration in space produces both electric and magnetic fields.
• A body can be charged by friction, conduction of induction.
• Electrification by friction can be done by rubbing
• Electrification by conduction is keeping charged body in contact with neutral body.
• Conduction preceeds repulsion
• In conduction both bodies attain same change.
• Electrification by induction is the method of changing a body without keeping bodies in contact.
• Induction always preceeds attraction.
• Induced charge \tt q^{1} = q \left(1 - \frac{1}{K}\right) (K = dielectric charge)
• Charge per unit length is called linear charge density (λ)
• Unit of linear charge density is coulb/met
• Charge per unit surface area is called Surface charge density
• Unit of surface charge density is coulb/met2.
• Charge per unit volume is called volume charge density
• Unit of volume charge density is coulb/m3.
• Charge given to a conductor always resides on the outer surface

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Quantisation of charge
Q on a body is always given by q = ne