Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Animal husbandry

  • Animal husbandry is the science of rearing, improvement and caring of domesticated animals, Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal husbandry. It is done by two methods : Natural & artificial.
  • Natural breeding occur naturally and of two types. Inbreeding and outbreeding. Inbreeding refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within same breed for 4 - 6 generations. Inbreeding increases homozygosity, so it is necessary for evolving a pure line in any animal. Continued inbreeding usually reduces fertility and even productivity (inbreeding depression).
  • Outbreeding:- It is the breeding of unrelated animals which may be individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors (out erossing) or of different breeds (cross - breeding) or different species (inner - specific hybridization).
  • Out crossing involves mating of animals within the same breed but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree upto 4 - 6 generating
  • Cross breeding is the method of breeding superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed. It allows the desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined. Eg: Hissardale is a new breed of sheep developed in punjab by crossing Bikaneri cows and marino rams.
  • Interspecific hybridisation is mating between members of two different species produces interspecific hybrids. It is performed only when the sterile hybrid is far superior to either of the parents.
  • Dairy farm management is one for the upkeep of dairy animals, extracting milk and preparation of various milk products like cheese, butter, curd etc.
  • Cattle : It includes cow (adult female), bull (uncastrated adult male), bullock or ox and steer (young castrated male)
  • Cow breeds are classified into three groups.
    (i) milch breeds
    (ii) Drought breeds
    (iii) General utility breeds (dual purpose)
  • The family of domestic cattle is bovidae. There are two main groups of bovidae (domestic cattle) eg (i) Bos indicus (India and africa) (ii) Bos taurees {Non humped cattle} (europe & north america)
  • Indian cattle breed are Gir, Sahiwal, Red sindhi Nagori, Hallikar and Kankrej etc.
  • Erotic breeds are foreign breeds of animals which are introduced in the country and require special environment eg: Friesian - Holstein (Holland), Brown swiss (switzerland) and jersey. They have beed hybridized with indian cows to develop locally acclimatized high performance cattle, eg: Karan swiss, sunandini, Jersey - Sindhi, Brown swiss - sahiwal Ayrshire - sahiwal.
  • National Dairy research Institute, Karnal (Haryana) is involved in the production of new breeds of cattle eg: karan - swiss, Karan fries etc.
  • Artificial insemination was first introduced in India at indian veterinary research institute Izatnagar near Bareily, uttar pradesh.
  • Multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology (MOET) is one programme for herd improrement. In this method, cow is administered with hormones. So if induces follicular maturation and super ovulation instead of one egg, they produce 6 - 8 egge.
  • Superovulation, embryo transplantation and surrogate mothers also help to improve breeds. Deep freezing (−190°C) is used for keeping seven day old embryo for several years.
  • Infertility in local breeds of cattle has been overcome through the use of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. sterile and immature cows can be induced to lactate through stilbesterol.
  • Indian buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) is better than cow in many respects
    (i) Average annual milk yield of buffalo is A 97 Litres (173 Litres - cow)
    (ii) Buffalo's milk has about 50% more fat content than cow's milk
    (iii) Buffalo milk also has higher mineral contents than cow's milk.
  • Bee keeping / Apiculture is rearing of bees for collecting honey and bees wax. They are good pollinators.
  • Common species for honey bee are
    (i) Apis dorsata (Rock bee)
    (ii) Apis Indica (Indian bee)
    (iii) Apis florea (Little bee)
    (iv) Apis mellifera (Italian bee)
  • Honey contains two sugars - dextrose and levulose and a mixture of several other substance. Nest of honey bees is known as bee - live. Honey bees are raised in apiaries. Apiary is the place where bees are cultured and bred to get commercial products.
  • Bees are polymorphic consist of three types of individuals viz, Queen, drone, worker.
  • Queen is the only fertile female. (diploid). Royal jelly is secreted by the maxillary glands of the worker bees to feed young larvae which are destined to develop into future queen.
  • Queen lays both fertilized and unfertilized eggs (1500 - 2000 / day). Fertilized eggs develop into female workers. Unfertilized eggs develop into drones.
  • Drones are haploid, fertile males which more with queen, so it is king of colony. (No. 200 - 300 / hire). The sting and wax glands are absent. Develops pathogenetically from unfertilized egg.
  • Workers are sterile female, incapable of producing eggs. It is diploid. Dark and small in size. Pollen grains adhere to branched hair on the body pollen basket (or) corbicula on hind legs are present
  • Workers also have sting with poison sac at the tip of abdomen. They have chewing and lapping type of mouth pacts, modified for collections hector and pollen of the flowers.
  • Young workers secrete royal jelly and are called nurse bees. (fed to queen young bees). Scout bees search for food and intimate the same to worker bees by dancing - round dance for a food source less than 75 m and taic wagging dance for longer distance.
  • Bee enemies include wax mouth (eg: galleria mollonella), wasp (eg : vespa) black ants (eg : camponotus compressus) and bee eaters (eg : merops orientalis & King crow, dicrurus macrocenes)
  • Two common diseases are (i) Nosema disease by protozoan Nosema apis and (ii) Acarine disease by parasitic mite acarapis woodi
  • Poultry is rearing of domesticated fowels (chickens) ducts, geese, turkey, guinea fowls, pigeons etc. but it is more often used for fowls.
  • Domestic fowl (gallus domesticus) constitutes the major poultry bird.
  • Poultry birds exclusively grown for meat is called as broilers (eg : plymouth rock), layers are for egg production, cockerells are young male fowls and roosters are mature male fowls.
  • Breeds of fowls are
    (i) Indigenous breeds - Chittagong Aseel. Bursa, Danki, Karaknath, Tellicherry etc. Aseel has poor growth and low fertility, but it is one of the best table bird.
    (ii) American breeds :- wyandotte, Rhode Island red, New Hampshire, plymouth rock (popular breed of USA)
    (iii)Asiatic breeds : Brahma, Langshan, Cochin
    (iv)Mediterranean breeds : Leghorn, Minorca, Spanish, andalusian, Buttercup.
    (v) English breed: sussex, Orpington, Australorp, Cornish, redcap, Dorking
  • Important poultry disease are
    (1) Ranikhet disease (Viral disease)
    (2) Infectious coryza : C.A → Haemophilus gallinarum
    (3) Marck's disease:
    (4) Pullorum disease : CA → Salmonella pullorum
    (5) Bird flue : CA → H5N1 virus (* C.A → Causative agent)
  • Fishery is a kind of industry is for catching, processing / selling fish, shell fish (prawns & molluscas) or other aquatic animals (Crabs, lobster, edible oyster)
  • Pisiculture is rearing, catching and management of edible fish. aquaculture is rearing, and management of useful aquatic plants and animals (Fishes, Oysters, Mussels, Prawns etc)
  • Two main type of fisheries
    (1) Inland fishery
    (2) Marine fishery
  • Inland fishery is rearing of fish in freshwater Important Inland Prawns & fishes are (1) Prawns (Palaemon) (2) Fish (Labeo ronita, Labeo Calbasu, Catla Catla, Wallago attu, Heteropnestes heteropreustes, singhala, elarias batrachus)
  • Marine fishery is rearing of fishes in sea water cove
    Eg:- (1) Hisla
           (2) Salmon (Eleutheronema )
           (3) Sardine (Sardinella)
           (4)Anguilla (eel)
           (5) Mackeral
           (6) Harpodon (bombay duck)
  • In India Khan successfully induced Cirrhinus mrigala to spaw by injecting mammalian pituitary hormone in the year 1938.
  • A technique where by fishes are stimulated by pituitary hormones injection to breed in captivity is called as induced breeding (Hormones FSH & LH for maturation of gonads & spauing)
  • Blue revolution is for improvement of fish production in India. By products of fishes are fish oil, fish meal, shagreen, fish glue, isinglass, squalene, and fish fertilizers which are also commercial products.
  • Seri culture is breeding and management of silk worms (Bombyx mori), for the production of silk at commercial level.
  • Silk worms undergo metamorphosis to produce youngones. eggs → Larva (catterpillar) → pupa → adult (hard outer coverings cocoon)
  • Commercial silk is mulberry silk in India (3rd rank in silk production). Karnataka ranks first in production of raw silk. It has shining white yellow colour mulberry silk is obtained from bombyx mori which feeds on leaves of mulberry (mones alba). Growing this particular silkworm is called as moriculture.
  • Other silks are
    (1) Muga silk (Antheraea assamensis → feed on cinnamon trees)
    (2) Eri/arundi silk → Attacus / philosamia rechinii → castor (cream white)
    (3) Tussar silk → antheraea mylitta → oak trees (coppery colour)
  • Common disease of silkworms are
    (i) Pebrine (Protozoan Nosema bombycis)
    (ii) Muscardine (fungus spicaria & botrytis, vines flacherie)

Watch this video for the topic from 0:12 to 15:05


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