Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Double fertilization, Artificial hybridisation

  1. Mostly, the pollen tube enters the embryo sac at the micropylar end.
  2. One of the male gametes fuses with egg to form zygote (2n) and is termed as syngamy (or) generative fertilization.
  3. The second male gamete fuses with secondary nuclei (or) polar nucleus (2) to form TPEN (Triploid Primary Endosperm Nucleus) and is termed as Triple fusion (or) Vegetative fertilization
  4. Double fertilization is a specific feature of Angiosperms which was first reported in Fritillaria and Lilies by Nawaschin S.G. (1898)
    ⇒ Artificial Hybridisation for Crop improvement
  5. It involves the crossing experiments where it is important to make sure that only desired pollens are used for pollination and the stigma is protected from contamination, which is achieved through Emasculation and bagging techniques.
  6. Removal of anthers from the flowers bud is referred to as Emasculation.
  7. Bagging is a step to cover the emasculated flowers with a butter paper of suitable size to prevent contamination of its stigma with undesired pollen.

Part-1: Watch this video for the topic from 0:34 to 17:18 

Part-2: Watch this video for the topic from 0:11 to 5:23

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