Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Development of seed and formation of fruit
- Seeds are the ripened ovules, where the integuments form the seed coat (outer – testa; inner-tegmen).
- In some cases, the third integument (or) Aril is present and acts as an additional covering of the seed.
- Funiculus forms the seed stalk, further it withers and leaves a minute scar called hilum.
- Nucleus may disappear (or) persist as perisperm, where antipodals and synergids disorganize.
- If the food stored up in endosperm is completely exhausted by the developing embryo then the seed is non-endospermic / Ex – albuminous
Eg: gram, pea, bean, orchid.
- If the endosperm grows vigorously and is not exhausted by the developing embryo it is endospermic (or) albuminous type :
Eg : - barley, wheat, poppy, castor etc.
- Fertilized ovary develops into a fruit and even from the other tissues where a fruit is covered by a pericarp.
- Pericarp consists of Epicarp (Fruit’s skin) mesocarp (fleshy an pulpy part) and Endocarp (inner most part that surrounds the seed)
- Fruits can be classified into three main categories
(i) simple, (develops from syncarpous ovary)
(ii) Aggregate and (develops from apocarpous ovary)
(iii) Composite /multiple fruits (develops from complete inflorescence)
Watch this video for the topic from 36:40 to 56:17
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