Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Development of seed and formation of fruit

  1. Seeds are the ripened ovules, where the integuments form the seed coat (outer – testa; inner-tegmen).
  2. In some cases, the third integument (or) Aril is present and acts as an additional covering of the seed.
  3. Funiculus forms the seed stalk, further it withers and leaves a minute scar called hilum.
  4. Nucleus may disappear (or) persist as perisperm, where antipodals and synergids disorganize.
  5. If the food stored up in endosperm is completely exhausted by the developing embryo then the seed is non-endospermic / Ex – albuminous
    Eg: gram, pea, bean, orchid.
  6. If the endosperm grows vigorously and is not exhausted by the developing embryo it is endospermic (or) albuminous type :
    Eg : - barley, wheat, poppy, castor etc.
  7. Fertilized ovary develops into a fruit and even from the other tissues where a fruit is covered by a pericarp.
  8. Pericarp consists of Epicarp (Fruit’s skin) mesocarp (fleshy an pulpy part) and Endocarp (inner most part that surrounds the seed)
  9. Fruits can be classified into three main categories
    (i) simple, (develops from syncarpous ovary)
    (ii) Aggregate and (develops from apocarpous ovary)
    (iii) Composite /multiple fruits (develops from complete inflorescence)

Watch this video for the topic from 36:40 to 56:17

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