Reproductive Health

Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT


  • Inability to conceive (or) produce children inspite of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility.
  • It is caused by physical, congenital, immunological (or) even psychological disorders.
  • Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) include a number of special techniques which assist infertile couples to have children.
  • Test tube body programme involves in vitro fertilization (IVF) ie. fertilization of male and female gamete outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body followed by Embryo transfer.
  • Embryo upto 8 blastomeres is transferred into the Fallopian tube (zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer - ZIFT) to complete its further development.
  • If the embryo is with more than 8 blastomeres, it is transferred into uterus. (IUT - Intra uterine Transfer) to complete its further development.
  • A woman who substitutes or takes the place of real mother to nurse the embryo is called surrogate/genetic mother.
  • Artificial Insemination Technique (AIT) is used in those females where the husband is either unable to inseminate the female or has very low sperm counts in ejaculation.
  • Gamete intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) is used in females who cant produce ova but can provide suitable environment for fertilization and further development of embryo in oviducts.
  • Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the technique where sperm is directly injected into the ovum to form an embryo in laboratory. The embryo is later transferred by ZIFT or IUT in woman.

Detection of foetal disorders:

  • Transabdominal aspiration of fluid from the amniotic sac of foetus is called amnio centesis. It is a foetal sex determination and disorder test based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid surrounding the embryo.
  • At the early stage of pregnancy, the location of foetus and placenta is determined by sonography.
  • Unfortunately this useful technique is being misused to kill the normal female foetuses. It has been legally banned for the determination of sex to avoid female foeticide.
  • In chorionic villi sampling (CVS) technique the physician inserts, a narrow flexible tube through the mother's vagina and cervix tube into uterus and withdraws a small amount of foetal tissue from placenta.
  • One of the widely used non-invasive technique to determine foetal condition is ultrasound imaging.
  • Foetoscopy is a technique in which a thief tube containing a viewing scope is inserted into uterus, giving the physician a direct view of fetus.

Part-1: Watch this video for the topic from 0:18 to 8:38

Part-2: Watch this video for the topic from 0:10 to 10:49

Disclaimer: Compete.etutor.co may from time to time provide links to third party Internet sites under their respective fair use policy and it may from time to time provide materials from such third parties on this website. These third party sites and any third party materials are provided for viewers convenience and for non-commercial educational purpose only. Compete does not operate or control in any respect any information, products or services available on these third party sites. Compete.etutor.co makes no representations whatsoever concerning the content of these sites and the fact that compete.etutor.co has provided a link to such sites is NOT an endorsement, authorization, sponsorship, or affiliation by compete.etutor.co with respect to such sites, its services, the products displayed, its owners, or its providers.