Reproductive Health

Birth control - need and methods

  • The regulation of conception by preventive methods or devices to limit the number of offspring is called birth control. Birth control methods which deliberately prevent fertilization are referred to as contraception.
  • The various birth control methods can be grouped into following three methods.
    ⇒ Temporary methods
    ⇒ Permanent methods
    ⇒ Medical Termination of Pregnancy
  • Temporary methods are of many types: natural, barrier, oral contraceptives, other contraceptives and abstinence.
  • Natural methods avoid meeting of sperm and ovum which include safe period coitus interruptus and lactational amenorrhoea (withdrawal method).
  • In barrier methods, condoms and IUD are used. Condoms are made of thin rubber/latex sheath used to cover the penis or vagina or cervix.
  • Intra uterine devices (IUD's) are plastic/metal objects which are inserted by doctors in the uterus through vagina.
    ⇒ Non medicated IUD's [lippes loop]
    ⇒ Copper releasing [CuT, CuT, multiload 375] → Suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity
    ⇒ Hormone releasing [Progestasert, LNG-20]
  • Oral contraceptives are used in the form of Tablets and so they are called as pill which have to be taken for 21 days starting within the first 5 days of menstrual cycle.
  • Oral contraceptive pills contain either progesterone (or) with the combination of progesterone and oestrogen which is of 2 types combined pills (or) mini pills.
  • Mini pills contain progestin only [Eg. Mala D/Mala N]
  • Permanent (or) surgical method involves sterilization which provides a permanent and sure birth control.
  • Sterilization in male ⇒ Vasectomy [cutting of Vas deferens]
    Sterilization in female ⇒ Tubectomy [blocking of fallopian tubes]
  • MTP or Induced abortion is intentionally or voluntary termination of pregnancy before the foetus becomes viable.
  • MTP is safe upto 12 weeks of pregnancy. It becomes risky after the first trimester period of pregnancy as the foetus becomes intimately associated with maternal tissues.
  • At present, termination is legally allowed upto 28th week of pregnancy if the physician and gynaecologist consider the need for abortion.

Part-1: Watch this video for the topic from 0:18 to 9:52

Part-2: Watch this video for the topic from 0:09 to 7:10

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