Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Human Genome Project

  1. The main goals of HGP is to identify all the genes is human DNA, determine the sequences of DNA, solving ELSI (Ethical Logical and social issues), storing the information in a database and sequencing the model organisms.
  2. EST (Expressed sequence tags) and SA(Sequence Annotation) are the 2 methodologies that were followed in HGP.
  3. EST identities all the genes that expresses as RNA ; SA sequences all coding and non – coding regions and later assigns the functions to it.
  4. Whole DNA is cut into fragments by R.E(Restriction Enzyme) and then inserted into BAC/ YAC.
  5. After PCR has been performed, it is inserted into the host and fragments are sequenced.
  6. Based on overlapping technique in bio informatics, start to end point of the DNA is determined.
  7. Through HGP, satellite DNA’S (repetitive sequence) presence is determined in the whole DNA.
  8. Satellite DNA is of 2 types mini satelite and micro satellite
  9. Mini setellites are called VNTR (Variable number Tandem repeats, with 11-60BP) and micro satellites are SSR (simple sequence repeats) (5-8BP).
  10. Through HGP, human DNA was found to have 3164.7 million Base pairs and an average gene contains 3000 bases and totally the presence of 25-30000 genes were confirmed.
  11. The largest chromosome – chr I (2968 genes)
  12. Shortest chromosome – chr Y (23i genes
  13. The largest gene is ‘dys’ present as 2.4 mBP in chr X and shortest gene is TDF (Testis Determining Factor) with 14 BP in chr Y.
  14. HGP was a 13 years project, completed at a cost of 9 billion US dollars.

Watch this video for the topic from 0:41 to 16:25

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