Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Human Genome Project
- The main goals of HGP is to identify all the genes is human DNA, determine the sequences of DNA, solving ELSI (Ethical Logical and social issues), storing the information in a database and sequencing the model organisms.
- EST (Expressed sequence tags) and SA(Sequence Annotation) are the 2 methodologies that were followed in HGP.
- EST identities all the genes that expresses as RNA ; SA sequences all coding and non – coding regions and later assigns the functions to it.
- Whole DNA is cut into fragments by R.E(Restriction Enzyme) and then inserted into BAC/ YAC.
- After PCR has been performed, it is inserted into the host and fragments are sequenced.
- Based on overlapping technique in bio informatics, start to end point of the DNA is determined.
- Through HGP, satellite DNA’S (repetitive sequence) presence is determined in the whole DNA.
- Satellite DNA is of 2 types mini satelite and micro satellite
- Mini setellites are called VNTR (Variable number Tandem repeats, with 11-60BP) and micro satellites are SSR (simple sequence repeats) (5-8BP).
- Through HGP, human DNA was found to have 3164.7 million Base pairs and an average gene contains 3000 bases and totally the presence of 25-30000 genes were confirmed.
- The largest chromosome – chr I (2968 genes)
- Shortest chromosome – chr Y (23i genes
- The largest gene is ‘dys’ present as 2.4 mBP in chr X and shortest gene is TDF (Testis Determining Factor) with 14 BP in chr Y.
- HGP was a 13 years project, completed at a cost of 9 billion US dollars.
Watch this video for the topic from 0:41 to 16:25
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