Human Reproduction

Male reproductive systems

  • In males, reproductive system is located in the pelvis region, which includes a pair of testes along with accessory ducts, glands and the external genitalia.
  • Testes are paired structures which lie outside the abdominal cavity in a thin pouch of skin called scrotum which helps is maintaining the low temperature of testes (2-2.5°C lower than the normal internal body temperature) that is required for spermatogenesis.
  • In adults, each testis is oval in shape with a length of about 4 to 5 cm and width of about 2 to 3 cm. Tunica albuginea  is a dense covering that surrounds tests.
  • Each tests has about 250 compartments called testicular lobules that contains one to three highly coiled seminiferous tubules.
  • Majority of cells in germinal epithelium are cuboidal called male germ cells and at certain cells, there exist tall sertoli (or) sustentacular cells, which provides nutrition to the developing sperms.
  • In between the seminiferous tubules, there are present a small groups of rounded interstitial (or) Leydig's cells that secrete male sex hormones [Eg. Testosterone]
  • The seminiferous tubules are closed at one end but on the other side they join to a network the rate testis from where vasa efferentia arise.
  • The vasa efferentia leave the testis and open into epididymis located on the posterior surface of each testis.
  • Vasa deferens is connected with epididymis at the tail end. The union of the canals from seminal vesicles and vasa deferens form the ejaculatory duct.
  • The urethra originates from Urinary bladder and extend through the penis to its external opening called urethral meatus.
  • The penis is a cylindrical and highly vascularised capulatory organ, that is made up of special tissue that helps in creation of penis to facilitate insemination.
  • The enlarged end of Penis is glans penis which is covered by a loose fold of the skin called foreskin.
  • Male accessory glands ⇒[Paired seminal vesicles, Prostate (paired) and a paired bulbourethral glands]
  • Seminal vesicles, secrete viscous fluid which constitute the main part of the ejaculate seminal fluid contains fructose [as a source of energy which provide nourishment for the activity of sperm, Prostaglandins and clotting proteins].
  • The Prostate gland lies at the base of urinary bladder and surrounds the first part of urethra. Prostate fluid contain citric acid, number of enzymes and prostaglandins.
  • The 2 bulbo urethral glands (or) couperin gland secrete a clear, Viscous, mucus secreted by then neutralize any acid urine remaining [urethra]
  • Semen is a collection of secretion from seminal vesicles, prostate gland and cowper's gland.

Part-1: Watch this video for the topic from 0:32 to 11:52

Part-2: Watch this video for the topic from 0:37 to 15:28

Part-3: Watch this video for the topic from 0:11 to 15:40

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