Gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis
- Spermatogenesis is the process of formation of sperm which occurs is seminiferous tubules of testers after puberty. seminiferous tubules are lined by germinal epithelium that consists of primary/primordial germ cells (PGC) and nurse/sertoli cells
- Sperms are finally released into the cavity of tubules by a process spermiation.
- Spermatogenesis starts at the age of puberty due to significant increase in the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn RH) which stimulates the secretion of Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.
- A typical mammalian sperm consists of a head, neck, middle piece and tail.
- A head consists of nucleus and a small anterior cap like acrosome [Formed from golgi apparatus] that contains hydrolytic enzymes for penetration during fertilization.
- Middle piece contains mitochondrial spiral which provides energy for sperm movement.
- Tail is several time longer and gives motility to the sperm.
- The process of formation of mature female orum is oogenesis which occurs in ovaries.
- In the foetal development, certain cells is the germinal epithelium of the ovary of the foetus are larger than others which divided by mitosis, producing undifferentiated germ cells called egg mother cells (or) oogonia is ovary of foetus.
- The oogonia multiply and project into stroma of the ovary, the egg tube of pfluger which later becomes the egg nest.
- The tertiary follicle further changes into the mature follicle/ Graafian follicle
- The secondary oocyte forms a new membrane called zona pellucida surrounding it. The graafian follicle now ruptures to release secondary Oocyte from the ovary by the process ovulation.
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