Human Reproduction

Female reproductive system


  • It consists of a pair of ovaries along with a pair a oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina and the external genitalia located in Pelvic region.
  • The two ovaries are small bodies each 2 to 4 cm in length which gets attached to abdominal wall by mesovarium which is covered by a germinal epithelium
  • The Fallopian tubes (oviduct), vagina and uterus comprise female accessory ducts.
  • 3 regions of oviduct are infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus.
  • Infundibulum-broad
    Ampulla-widest and longest [fertilization of ovum]
    Isthmus-very short & narrow.
  • The uterus is a highly elastic medium specialized for embryo development which has inverted pear shape which is attached to body wall by mesometrium which is some what larger is multiparous women.
  • Uterus → Outer covering → Perimetrium
                  Midale covering → Myometrium
                  Inner covering → Endometrium [simple columnar with/without cilia]
                                                   ↓
                  Undergoes cyclic changes during menstrual cycle                          
  • Uterus opens into vagina through a narrow cervix which has a cavity called cervical canal.
  • Female external genitalia is called vulva → 2 fleshy folds → Labia minora, Labia majora
  • Mons pubis is the fleshy elevation above Labia majora, which bears pubic hair.
  • Clitoris is small erectile located is the uppermost angle of vulva, infront of urethral opening, which is highly sensitive as it contains sensory nerve endings for touch and pressure.
  • Vaginal Orifice is normally covered is the virgin by Hyman. The hymen is ruptured during first copulation. It can also be broken by a sudden fall (or) jolt, insertion of a vaginal tampon, active participation in sports.
  • The mammary glands [modified sweat glands] lie over the pectoral's major muscle.
  • Externally, each breast has a projection, the nipple surrounded by a circular pigmented area of skin called areola. Internally, Mammary gland consists of glandular, fibrous and adipose tissue.
  • glandular tissue →  15-20 mammary lobules → milk secreting alveoli.
  • After milk is produced, it passes from the alveoli into mammary tubules and then into the mammary ducts. Near to nipple, mammary ducts expand to form mammary ampullae (or) lactiferous sinuses where some milk may be stored before going to lactiferous ducts.

Watch this video for the topic from 10:39 to 25:39

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