Biotechnology and its Applications

Transgenic animals, Transgenic Plants

  1. Animals that carry useful foreign genes are called transgenic animals.
  2. The first transgenic animal developed for the food production is Fish by genetically modifying sperms of Salmon by inserting the gene for Human growth Hormone into it.
  3. Transgenic chicken was developed by salter and Crittenden against Avian Leukosis Virus.
  4. Transgenic mice is most preferred as it has short oestrous cycle and gestation period and also it produces several offsprings per pregnancy.
  5. Transgenic rabbits are developed to obtain Interleukin-2, Growth Hormone, TPA, α-1-AT and etc.
  6. Clotting factor IX and α-1-Antitrypsin was expressed in mammary tissues of transgenic sheep. In 1990, Tracy, the transgenic ewe was born in Scotland.
  7. Transgenic pigs serves as a bioreactors and are also used for meat production but still they show health problems.
  8. Rosie was the first transgenic cow, from which there were mainly 2 objectives.
    (i) Increased milk and meat production
    (ii) Molecular farming [using plants (or) animals as bioreactors].
  9. Transgenic dog was prepared for its enhanced smelling power, which was used during the attack on WTC (World Trade Center) of the USA was named as Dogie.
  10. Dr. Gerald Schatter has credit as he developed ANDI (Transgenic Monkey) by transferring fluorescent creating gene from jelly fish into an unfertilized egg of a Rhesus monkey, which was helpful to cure breast cancer, AD, AIDS etc.,

    Transgenic Plants

  11. Ti-plasmid (Tumour inducing) from Agrobacterium Tumefaciens is used as vector for gene transfer to plant cells, and hence the bacterium is called natural genetic engineer.
  12. Transgene is inserted in Ti plasmid and so that it leads to 2 important advantages
    (i) Tumour would not be produced in the plant & Crown gall disease is presented.
    (ii) Desired gene is inserted into the plant.
  13. Bt toxin genes are isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and has been incorporated into cotton to create BT cotton, which resists insects feeding the crop.
  14. Bt toxin genes were named as cry genes, which are of 2 types
    (i) Cry IAC/II Ab (prevent boll-worms)
    (ii) Cry IAB (Protect from corn-borer).
  15. Gene silencing / m-RNA interference technique was introduced by Fire / Mello to create pest [Meloidogyne incognita] resistance in the roots of Tobacco plants.
  16. To delay fruit ripening, ‘Flavr-Savr’ tomatoes were introduced by inhibiting the enzyme polygalacturonase which causes softening of the fruit.
  17. Golden rice is a transgenic variety of rice, which contain β-carotene (provitamin A). The yellow colour of the rice is due to the pigment β-carotene.

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