Biotechnology and its Applications
Transgenic animals, Transgenic Plants
- Animals that carry useful foreign genes are called transgenic animals.
- The first transgenic animal developed for the food production is Fish by genetically modifying sperms of Salmon by inserting the gene for Human growth Hormone into it.
- Transgenic chicken was developed by salter and Crittenden against Avian Leukosis Virus.
- Transgenic mice is most preferred as it has short oestrous cycle and gestation period and also it produces several offsprings per pregnancy.
- Transgenic rabbits are developed to obtain Interleukin-2, Growth Hormone, TPA, α-1-AT and etc.
- Clotting factor IX and α-1-Antitrypsin was expressed in mammary tissues of transgenic sheep. In 1990, Tracy, the transgenic ewe was born in Scotland.
- Transgenic pigs serves as a bioreactors and are also used for meat production but still they show health problems.
- Rosie was the first transgenic cow, from which there were mainly 2 objectives.
(i) Increased milk and meat production
(ii) Molecular farming [using plants (or) animals as bioreactors].
- Transgenic dog was prepared for its enhanced smelling power, which was used during the attack on WTC (World Trade Center) of the USA was named as Dogie.
- Dr. Gerald Schatter has credit as he developed ANDI (Transgenic Monkey) by transferring fluorescent creating gene from jelly fish into an unfertilized egg of a Rhesus monkey, which was helpful to cure breast cancer, AD, AIDS etc.,
- Ti-plasmid (Tumour inducing) from Agrobacterium Tumefaciens is used as vector for gene transfer to plant cells, and hence the bacterium is called natural genetic engineer.
- Transgene is inserted in Ti plasmid and so that it leads to 2 important advantages
(i) Tumour would not be produced in the plant & Crown gall disease is presented.
(ii) Desired gene is inserted into the plant.
- Bt toxin genes are isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis and has been incorporated into cotton to create BT cotton, which resists insects feeding the crop.
- Bt toxin genes were named as cry genes, which are of 2 types
(i) Cry IAC/II Ab (prevent boll-worms)
(ii) Cry IAB (Protect from corn-borer).
- Gene silencing / m-RNA interference technique was introduced by Fire / Mello to create pest [Meloidogyne incognita] resistance in the roots of Tobacco plants.
- To delay fruit ripening, ‘Flavr-Savr’ tomatoes were introduced by inhibiting the enzyme polygalacturonase which causes softening of the fruit.
- Golden rice is a transgenic variety of rice, which contain β-carotene (provitamin A). The yellow colour of the rice is due to the pigment β-carotene.
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