Mechanical Properties of Fluids
- Viscous force is the force of friction acting between two layers of fluids, opposing the relative motion of one over the other.
- When temperature increases viscosity of gases increases due to exchange of momentum.
- When temperature increases viscosity of liquids decreases due to decrease in cohesive forces.
- Velocity gradient is the ratio of difference in velocities and the distance between two points in the liquid.
- The viscosity and compressibility of an ideal fluid is zero.
- The viscous force acting between two adjacent layers of a liquid is directly proportional to the surface area of the layers in contact and the velocity gradient.
- Coefficient of viscosity is defined as the tangential force per unit area required to maintain unit velocity gradient.
- The ratio between the coefficient of viscosity and density of liquid is called coefficient of kinematic viscosity.
- If the flow is streamline velocity of liquid is proportional to pressure difference.
- When capillaries are connected in series volume of the liquid flowing per second is same.
- when capillaries are connected in parallel the total pressure remains constant.
- When the sum of viscous force and upthrust of the liquid on the body is equal to its weight.
- Terminal velocity is directly proportional to the square of the radius of the sphere.
- Terminal velocity and viscosity are inversely proportional to each other.
- When 'n' droplets are falling down with terminal velocity ν are combined and formed a big drop then terminal velocity of big drop Vbig = n2/3 Vsmall.
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1. The coefficient of viscosity for a fluid is defined as the ratio of shearing stress to the strain rate.
2. Stoke's law: It is the viscous drag force F on a sphere of radius r moving with velocity v through a fluid of viscosity η.
F = 6 πηav
3. Terminal velocity: The maximum constant velocity acquired by the body while falling through a viscous fluid.