Structure, properties and uses of Allotropes and Oxides of carbon

Carbon Allotropes :
i) Crystalline

  • Diamond
  • Graphite
  • Fullerene

ii) Amorphous :
ex : Coke, Coal ---- etc
Diamond :
sp3 - hybridisation
Bond angle is 109°28'
Bond length is 1.54Å
strong covalent bonds

Graphite :
sp2 hybridisation
Bond length 1.4Å
Strong covalent with hexagonal rings.

Uses :

  • Used as electrode
  • used in lead pencil (% of lead is zero)
  • Good conductor of electricity
  • Thermodynamically more stable

Fullerenes : (C60)
Heating of graphite in an electric cork in the presence of inert gases such as He/Ar then sooty material formed by condensation of vapourised Cn molecules consists mainly C60 called fullerens.
Properties :
It has cage like structure
C60 shape - Soccer ball / foot ball
It contains 20 - 6 membered rings
                12 - 5 membered rings
It is also called as Buckminster fullerene / Bucky ball.

View the Topic in this Video from 0:07 to 16:25

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