Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques

Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

Nomenclature of Hydro carbons:

IUPAC [International Union of pure and Applied Chemistry]
According to IUPAC name of every organic compound has 3 parts.

Root word: It indicates no.of carbon atoms present in selected chain.
1-meth, 2-eth, 3-prop, 4-but, 5-pent, 6-hex, 7-hetp, 8-oct, 9-none, 10-dec


Primary suffix indicates carbon chain is saturated (or) unsaturated.
   Saturated: C—C ane
Unsaturated: C=C ene
                    C≡C yne
IUPAC = Root word + Primary suffix

Secondary suffix: It indicates functional group in the molecule
IUPAC: Root word + Primary suffix + secondary suffix

Prefix: It indicates the substituent (or) side chain present in the given molecule.
Ex: Cl Chloro (prefix)
      Br Bromo (prefix)
IUPAC = Prefix + Root word + 1° suffix + 2° suffix

Rules for IUPAC nomenclature:
1. Longest carbon chain
2. Lowest number rule
3. Suitable prefix
4. Alphabetical order
5. Cyclo alkanes
6. The parent functional group is identified and given highest order precedence, the final name should be something like
#,#-di<side chain> #<secondary functional group>parent chain prefix >#> if all bonds are single bonds,
Use 'ane'>##di <double bonds>#<triple bonds>#<primary functional group
Here # denotes number

IUPAC Nomenclature of ether:
General formula : R–O–R
General IUPAC name : Alkoxy Alkane
EX: (i) CH3—O—CH3 methoxy methane
(ii) C2H5—O—C2H5 ethoxy ethane

Acid halides:
General formula:
IUPAC Name: Alkoxy halide

General formula :
IUPAC Name : Alkanamide

General formula :
IUPAC Name : Alkyl Alkanoate

Acid Anhydride:
General formula :
IUPAC Name : Alkanoic Anhydride

1° Amine:
General formula : R—NH2
IUPAC Name: Alkanamine
Ex: CH3—NH2 methanamine

2° Amine:
General formula:
IUPAC Name: Alkyl Alkanamine

3° Amine:

Order of functional groups: (poly functional groups)


Nomenclature of Cyclic compounds:
1. Use prefix cyclo before the Root word

Nomenclature of Bicyclo compounds:
Two rings are fused together obtained compound is bicyclic compound.

Aromatic compounds:
All benzene derivatives are having benzene word at the end.

View the Topic in this Video from 0:44 to 49:00

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