Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques

Electrophiles and Nucleophiles, Inductive Effect, Electromeric Effect, Resonance, Hyper Conjugation

General Organic chemistry:
Electronic effects:
(i) Inductive effect: (I)
The polarisation of 1—σ bond which causes the polarisation of adjacent σ bond this is called Inductive effect

It is permanent effect generally occurs in saturated carbons.
It is passed through 'σ' bond.

−I groups (withdrawing groups):
Ex: NO2, CN-, COOH, CO, OH, NH2, \tt NH_3^{+}... etc
Order:\tt NH_3^{+}> NO2 > CN > SO3H > CHO > CO > COOH > COCl > COOR > CONH2 > R > Cl > Br > I > OH > OR > NH2 > C6H5

Resonance Effect (R):
The interaction of 2 'π' bonds (or) π-bond and lone pair of electrons (or) +ve charge (or) −ve charge (or) free radicals due to this interaction polarisation is produced. This is called Resonance effect.
+R groups: NH2, OH, OR, O, NHR etc
−R groups: –NH3,—CN, NO2, COOH, CHO, SO3H...

Hyper conjugation:
Interaction of with π-bonded orbitals or p-orbitals of carbocation or free radical is known as hyper conjugation or Backer Nathal effect (or) No–bond resonance.
Ex: 1. Compound should contain one sp2 carbon.
2. Compound should contain at least one α-hydrogen w.r.t to sp2 carbon.

Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 00:30 to 18:00

Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 35:03 to 55:24

Part3: View the Topic in this Video from 00:40 to 36:25

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Bond order = \tt \frac{total \ no. \ of \ bonds \ between \ two \ atoms}{total \ no. \ of \ resonating \ structures}