## Organic Chemistry: Some basic Principles and Techniques

# Detection and Estimation of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Halogens, Sulphur and Phosphorus

### Detection of Elements :

The qualitative analysis of an organic compound involves the detection of all the elements present in it.

**Different methods for detection of elements:**

Lassaigne Method: Nitrogen, Sulphur and Halogen

Soda Lime Test: Nitrogen

Oxidation Test: Sulphur

Beilstein's Test: Halogens

### Estimation of Elements :

Various methods commonly used for the quantitative estimation of principal elements are

Leibig's Method: Carbon and Hydrogen

Duma's Method: Nitrogen

Kjeldahl's Method: Nitrogen

Carius Method: Halogens, Sulphur and Phosphorus

Aluise's Method: Oxygen

### Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 32:23 to 58:48

### Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 0:45 to 54:11

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1. % of C = \tt \frac{12}{44}\times \frac{weight \ of \ CO_{2}}{w}\times 100

where, w = weight of the compound

2. % of H = \tt \frac{2}{18}\times \frac{weight \ of \ H_{2}O}{w}\times 100

3. % of Cl = \tt \frac{35.5}{143.5}\times \frac{weight \ of \ AgCl}{w}\times 100

4. % of Br = \tt \frac{80}{188}\times \frac{weight \ of \ AgBr}{w}\times 100

5. % of I = \tt \frac{127}{235}\times \frac{weight \ of \ AgI}{w}\times 100

6. % of S = \tt \frac{32}{233}\times \frac{weight \ of \ BaSO_{4}}{w}\times 100

7. % of N = \tt \frac{28}{22400}\times \frac{volume \ of \ N_{2}\ at \ NTP}{w}\times 100(Duma's method)

8. % of N = \tt \frac{14 \ M \times 2 \left(V-V/2\right)}{w} (Kjeldahl's method)

9. % of O = 100 - (% of rest of the elements)

10. % of P = \tt \frac{62}{222}\times \frac{mass \ of \ Mg_{2}P_{2}O_{7} \ formed}{mass \ of \ substance \ taken}\times 100