Plant Kingdom


  • They are vascular cryptogams with sporophytic plant body.
  • Leaves bearing sporangia are called sporophylls.
  • Spores in the sporangia may be homosporous (Eg. Pteris, Adiantum) (or) heterosporous, i.e. microspores and megaspores (Eg: Selaginella, Marsilea, Salvinia)
  • Generally, they occur in cool, damp and shady places. But Azolla, Salvinia, Marsilea are aquatic.
  • Pteridophytes are classified into Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida.
  • Psilopsida are the most primitive and the oldest known land inhabiting plants also called Whisk Ferns
  • Except for Psilotum, all the members of this class are known only as fossils.
  • Lycopsida (Club moss/ground pine) is also termed as little club moss (or) spike moss. Eg: Selaginella, Lycopodium.
  • Selaginella is known as resurrection plant as their brown tarn into green as and when they get water.
  • Lycopsida shows great variation in its morphology.
  • Sphenopsida is generally termed as horsetails.
  • Stale can be of Proto / Siphonostele.
  • Equisetum is the only living genus of this class, which has all of its species in homosporous type.
  • Pteropsida is a fern, which is widely distributed (Eg. Adiantum, Pteris, Marsilea) and Perennial.
  • Adiantum is also called as maidenhair fern (or) the walking fern as it propagates vegetatively by its adventitious buds on leaf tips.
  • Young leaves in the fern show circinate venation.
  • Dryopteris is commonly known as Beech fern (or) Male shield fern (or) Hay-scented fern.
  • Rootless pteridophyte is Salvinia and the smallest fern is Annograma leptophylla.

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