- They are vascular cryptogams with sporophytic plant body.
- Leaves bearing sporangia are called sporophylls.
- Spores in the sporangia may be homosporous (Eg. Pteris, Adiantum) (or) heterosporous, i.e. microspores and megaspores (Eg: Selaginella, Marsilea, Salvinia)
- Generally, they occur in cool, damp and shady places. But Azolla, Salvinia, Marsilea are aquatic.
- Pteridophytes are classified into Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida.
- Psilopsida are the most primitive and the oldest known land inhabiting plants also called Whisk Ferns
- Except for Psilotum, all the members of this class are known only as fossils.
- Lycopsida (Club moss/ground pine) is also termed as little club moss (or) spike moss. Eg: Selaginella, Lycopodium.
- Selaginella is known as resurrection plant as their brown tarn into green as and when they get water.
- Lycopsida shows great variation in its morphology.
- Sphenopsida is generally termed as horsetails.
- Stale can be of Proto / Siphonostele.
- Equisetum is the only living genus of this class, which has all of its species in homosporous type.
- Pteropsida is a fern, which is widely distributed (Eg. Adiantum, Pteris, Marsilea) and Perennial.
- Adiantum is also called as maidenhair fern (or) the walking fern as it propagates vegetatively by its adventitious buds on leaf tips.
- Young leaves in the fern show circinate venation.
- Dryopteris is commonly known as Beech fern (or) Male shield fern (or) Hay-scented fern.
- Rootless pteridophyte is Salvinia and the smallest fern is Annograma leptophylla.
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