Plant Kingdom


  • They are the first among the land plants, called as Amphibians of the plant kingdom as they live in the soil, but depends on water for reproduction.
  • The Gametophyte is thallus like in primitive forms like Riccia and it is differentiated into rhizoids, stem and leaves in higher forms such as mosses.
  • Bryophytes are devoid of xylem and Phloem, where rhizoids are responsible for absorption and fixation.
  • Male sex organ (Antheridium) produces biflagellated antherozoids and female sex organ (Archegonium) with a swollen venter produces a single egg. Both the sex organs are multicellular.
  • As the zygote is formed due to the fusion of antherozoid and egg, it produces a multicellular body known as the sporophyte, without undergoing reduction.
  • Hence the life cycle of bryophytes consists of 2 phases – (i) Gametophyte and (ii) – Sporophyte.
  • Smith, Takhtajan and Campbell divided bryophyte into 3 classes namely Hepaticae, Anthocerotae and Musci (or) Bryopsida.
  • Hepaticopsida also called liverwort Eg. Marchantia, where Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation (or) by forming specialised structures called gemmae (green, multicellular and asexual buds).
  • Elaters that are hygroscopic, which help in spore dispersal are present generally. But these are absent in Riccia.
  • Common examples are Riccia, Marchantia, Porella, Pellia, Sphaerocarpos (bottle hepatic)
  • Anthoceropsida has a horn-shaped sporophyte and is called hornworts.
  • The sporophyte is partially dependent on the gametophyte
  • Apospory is observed in same species of Anthoceropsida.
  • Examples: Anthoceros, Megaceros, Dendroceros
  • Bryopsida (or) Musci are called mosses which have an elaborate sporophyte than Anthoceropsida.
  • Commonly known examples are Fumaria, Polytrichum, Sphagnum.
  • The main plant body is gametophyte with a creeping protonema (Juvenile form) and a leafy gametophore (Adult form).
  • Bryophytes, especially mosses prevent soil erosion.
  • Sphagnum can absorb 18-26 times its weight of water and it is used in transportation and propagation, which acts as a replacement for adsorbent cotton.
  • Sphagnum can also be used as peat, which is a good manure.
  • Polytrichum extract is used to remove kidney stones.

Part-1: View this video for the topic from 0:09 to 6:23

Part-2: View this video for the topic from 0:09 to 11:13

Part-3: View this video for the topic from 0:08 to 14:12

Part-4: View this video for the topic from 0:09 to 13:29

Disclaimer: may from time to time provide links to third party Internet sites under their respective fair use policy and it may from time to time provide materials from such third parties on this website. These third party sites and any third party materials are provided for viewers convenience and for non-commercial educational purpose only. Compete does not operate or control in any respect any information, products or services available on these third party sites. makes no representations whatsoever concerning the content of these sites and the fact that has provided a link to such sites is NOT an endorsement, authorization, sponsorship, or affiliation by with respect to such sites, its services, the products displayed, its owners, or its providers.