Plant Kingdom


  • Seed plants, where seeds are formed inside fruits and the sporophylls are organised into flowers and they are mainly of 2 types – (i) Dicot and (ii) monocot.
  • Wolffia and Eucalyptus regnans are the smallest (0.1cm) and the largest (114m) angiosperms respectively.
  • Plants grow perched on other plants, in same moist areas, which are dependent only for either space (or) food and such plants are epiphytes known as space hosts Eg. Vanda
  • Microsporophyll (or) stamen contains a filament and an anther.
  • Megasporophyll (or) carpel produces stigma, style and ovary with ovules.
  • Female gametophyte is reduced within ovules and is named as Embryo-sac which is a product of meiosis.
  • Embryo-sac develops up to 8 nucleated stage before fertilization by possessing a 3 cell egg apparatus [2 synergids + 1 egg cell/oosphere], 3 antipodal cells and 2 polar nuclei [fused to form diploid secondary nucleus].
  • ‘Double fertilization’ is a characteristic feature of Angiosperms, where one of the male gametes fuses with an egg cell (syngamy) to develop embryo and another gamete fuses with the diploid nucleus to generate Triploid Primary Endosperm nucleus (TPEN). Which can also be termed as triple fusion.
  • Xylem possess vessels and phloem constitutes sieve tubes and companion cells.
  • Dicotyledonous angiosperms undergo secondary growth in root and stem regions.

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