Neural Control and Coordination

Neural system-Neuron and nerves

  • Neural system contains highly specialized cells, called neurons which receive the input from sensory neurons to CNS, process the input by CNS and responds to the stimuli and commands from CNS by providing a response.
  • Neurons are the structural and functional units of the neural system, which are the longest cells of the human body as they do not divide during the life time because of the lack of centrioles.
  • Three main parts of a neuron are Axon, cyton (all body) and Dendron.
  • Cyton possess a nucleus with nissl’s granules (Endoplasmic Reticulum with Ribosomes) and neurofibrils to transmit the impulses.
  • Longest part of the neuron is Axon, where nissl’s granula are absent with excess mitochondiria.
  • The most sensitive part of the neuron is Axonal hillock, in which an axon arises from the cyton.
  • Two types of Axons are myelinated (faster conduction) and unmyelinated (slow conduction).
  • Myelin sheaths is produced by schwann cells, which acts as insulator, that is made up of sphingolipids. The gap between 2 myelin sheath is termed as node of rainier.
  • Dendrites are tapering and branched with one to several in numbers which play a role in conducting nerve impulse towards the cell body and are called afferent processes)

Watch this video for the topic from 1:12 to 51:54

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