Morphology of Flowering Plants


  • It is a ripened ovule that contains an embryo is suspended animation, adequate reserve food for its future development and a covering for protection against mechanical injury, loss of water etc.
  • A seed may have one/ Two coverings called seed coats. The outer or the only seed coat is called Testa. While the inner one is named as Tegmen.
  • The surface of the seed possesses a fine pore called micropyle.
  • There is a sear, called hilum, which is the place where funiculus (or) stalk of the seed is borne.
  • The embryo consists of an axis/Tigellum to which are attached one or two cotyledons (or) seed leaves.
  • Micropylar end of figellum bears radicle and the other end is plumule (or) embryonic bud.
  • The part of embryo axis between the radicle and cotyledonary node is known as hypocotyl while the one between plumule and cotyledonary node is epicotyl.
  • Food storing tissue of a seed is endosperm.
  • Endospermic / albuminous seeds [eg . Most monocots, cereals, beens, coconut, rubber]
  • Non - endospermic / Ex - albuminous seeds [Most dicot, orchids, sagittaria]
  • In Nymphae, the food is stored in nucellus (or) perisperm and so is called as perispermic seed.
  • In Bartholettia, hypocotyl is enlarged to store reserve food.

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