Digestion and Absorption


  • Vitamins (Vita - Life, amine - vital amine) are discovered by N.I. Lunin (1881). They are regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organisms.
  • Fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A, D, E  and K. Water soluble vitamins are vitamin B complex, C, P.
  • Vitamin A, (Retinol) is required to enable night vision in human plays an essential role for vision, growth, differentiation of epithelial tissue. Cells need for transfusion of light required vitamin A. Deficiency of it, leads to night blindness, xerophthalmia and abnormal epithelial cell growth.
  • Vitamin D (calciferol) increases calcium absorption from gastro intestinal tract and helps to control calcium deposition in the bone formation of RNA needs vitamin D. Its deficiency cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adult.
  • Vitamin E (Tocopherol) acts as good antioxidant, essential for normal functioning of reproductive organs, maintains muscles of the body and structure of RBC. Deficiency of vitamin E leads to reproductive failure (sterility), muscular dystropy, increased haemolysis leading to macrocytic anaemia.
  • Vitamin K helps in blood clotting, prevention of excess bleeding. Faulty blood clotting, Haemorrhage are the symptoms of vitamin K deficiency. Phylloquinone (K1), menaquinone (K2) and menadione (K3) are three derivatives of Vitamin K.
  • Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is essential for the formation of RBCs and the production of antibodies. It is good for bones, teeth and gums, also acts as antioxidant. Its deficiency cause scurvy.
  • Vitamin P (Hesperidin, Citrin) maintains wall of the blood vessels.
  • Vitamin B1(Thiamine) is essential for repair and growth of tissues. Helps the body to convert the amino acid tryptophan to niacin. It acts as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) in TCA cycle. Vitamin B1 deficiency causes Beri-Beri, Wernicke's syndrome, Korsakoff's syndrome.
  • Vitamin B2 (Ribo flavin) helps in RBC production. It also acts as FMN and FAD. FMN acts in ETC, FAD acts in both TCA cycle and ETC. It's  deficiency causes cheilosis. (Riboflavin is also called as yellow enzyme).
  • Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotimic acid) acts as NAD and NADP is TCA cycle. Deficiency of Vitamin B3 causes pellagra, Hartnup disease and heriditary abnormality in metabolism of tryptophan.
  • Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is needed for healthy skin and hair. It forms co enzyme A in TCA cycle. Dermatitis, retarded growth, loss and greying of hair are the symptoms of vitamin B5.
  • Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) helps in protein metabolism. Dermatitis anaemia, convulsion, nausea, mental disorder and retarded growth are the symptoms of deficiency of vitamin B6.
  • Biotin (Vitamin B7) helps in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Its deficiency leads to poor growth, loss of muscular control, loss of appetite, weakness and hairfall.
  • Folic acid (Vitamin B10) is essential for formation of RBC, and it also increases the appetite. Its deficiency causes megaloblastic anaemia (or) macrolytic anaemia.
  • Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, cobalamine, castle's extrinsic factor) helps in RBC production, DNA synthesis, proper functioning of neurological system. Deficiency of Vitamin results in pernicious anaemia.
  • Vitamin B17 (Laetrice) has anticancer property.

Watch this video for the topic Vitamins from 0:06 to 5:58

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