Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Mitosis, significance of mitosis

  • Mitosis was first observed by Fleming in animal cells and strass burger in plant cells.
  • Mitosis happens in both haploid (n) and diploid cells (2n) so that it helps in maintaining the genetic similarity.
  • The karyokinesis of mitotic phase is divided into 4 distinct parts.
  • During prophase (longest phase), nucleoli and nuclear envelope disappear and formation of spindle apparatus occurs.
  • Chromosomes are best visualized only during metaphase of the cell cycle, in which those chromosomes get aligned up at the equator with the help of spindle that is attached to the kinetochore of the centromere.
  • During anaphase, the centromere splits into two and the daughter chromosomes are pulled to the opposite poles.
  • Three types of fibres that are formed are (i) continuous fibre (ii) discontinuous fibre and (iii) Inter-zonal fibre.
  • Telophase is the reverse of prophase, where chromosomes are decondensed and also the nucleoli and nuclear membrane are regenerated.
  • Before cytokinesis, the cell exist as dikaryon, where two nucleus are formed at two poles.
  • Colchicine is called the mitotic poison as it presents forming spindle fibres. Prophase poison is termed as the enzyme ribonuclease.
  • Mitosis helps in restoring the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio.
  • Mitosis promotes the number of cells within an organism.

View this video for the topic from 22:28 to 53:06

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