Wave Optics


  • Polarisation is the property of obstructing the vibration of particle.
  • Polarisation Establishes the transverse nature of Light waves
  • If the Electric vector vibrates in all directions in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation is called unpolarised light.
  • If the Electric field vector is contained to a plane passing through the direction of propagation it is called plane polarised light.
  • Polariser is the crystal used to polarise the unpolarised light.
  • Analyser is the crystal used to analyse the polarised light.
  • Malus law is given by I = I0 cos2 θ
  • Amplitude from malus law a = a0 cos θ
  • When three polaroids are present with consecutive angles θ1 and θ2 Then \tt I^{1}=\frac{I}{2}\cos^{2}\theta_{1}\cos^{2}\theta_{2}
  • polarising angle or Brewster's angle is the angle of incidence at which reflected light is polarised.
  • Brewster law States that tangent of polarising angle is equal to refractive index μ = Tan θp
  • \tt \tan\ \theta_{p}   =\frac{\mu}{1};\sin\ \theta_{p}   =\frac{\mu}{\sqrt{\mu^{2}+1}};\cos\ \theta_{p}   =\frac{1}{\sqrt{\mu^{2}+1}}
  • Ordinary ray in double refraction is that ray which obeys laws of refraction.
  • Extraordinary ray in double refraction is that ray which does not obeys law of refraction.
  • For ordinary ray \tt \mu_{0}=\frac{\sin i}{\sin r}
  • Optic axis the axis along which ordinary and Extraordinary rays have same speed.
  • Dichroism is the property of unequal absorption of ordinary and Extraordinary rays by some crystals.
  • man made polarising materials are called polaroids
  • Polarisation is used to study the helical structure of nucleic acids
  • Polarisation is used in polaroid sun goggles.
  • Optical activity of a substance is measured with the help of polarimeter
  • Speed of light wave is same it is called isotropic media
  • Speed of light wave is not same it is called anisotropic media
  • Diffraction pattern is due to interference of light from secondary waves of the same wave front
  • Sound waves cannot be polarised
  • Intensity of fraunhoffer diffraction at single slit \tt I_{0}=I_{0}\left(\frac{\sin\alpha}{\alpha}\right)^{2}\ where\ \alpha=\frac{\pi a}{\lambda}\ \sin\theta
  • Youngs double slit Experiment

View the Topic in this video From 00:14 To 3:54

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