General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals

Occurrence, Principles of Extraction of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron, Alloys

  1. Poling method is used when metal has metal oxide as impurities. Eg: Cu, Sn
  2. Cupellation is used when the metal has easily oxidizable impurities. Eg: Ag.
  3. Cyanide process to obtain silver or gold involves formation of soluble sodium cyanide complex from which the metal is precipitated out using zinc powder.
  4. Pattinson's process or Parke's process is used to obtain silver from crude metal

    Ores of few important metals
Metal Ores
1. Magnesium
  • a. Magnesite MgCO3
  • b. Dolomite MgCO3. CaCO3
  • c. Epsom salt MgSO4. 7H2O
  • d. Carnallite KCl. MgCl2. 6H2O
  • e. Asbestos Ca.Mg(SiO3)4
  • f. Talc. Mg (Si2O4)2 Mg(OH)2
2. Copper
  • a. Copper Pyrites CuFeS2
  • b. Cuprite Cu2O (Ruby Copper)
  • c. Copper glance Cu2S
  • d. Malachite Cu(OH)2. CuCO3.
  • e. Azurite Cu(OH)2. 2CuCO3.
3. Silver
  • a. Argentite / Silver glance Ag2S
  • b. Horn Silver AgCl
  • c. Ruby Silver / Pyrargyrite Ag3SbS3
4. Zinc
  • a. Zinc blende ZnS
  • b. Calamine ZnCO3
  • c. Zincite ZnO
  • d. Willemite Zn2SiO4
5. Aluminium
  • a. Bauxite Al2O3
  • b. Cryolite Na3AlF6
  • c. Feldspar KAlSi3O4
  • d. Kaolinite Al2O3. 2SiO3 2H2O
  • e. Mica H2O. 3 Al2O3. 6SiO2 2H2O
  • f. Diaspore Al2O3. 2H2O
6. Tin
  • Cassiterite SnO2 (Tin stone)
7. Lead
  • a. Galena PbS
  • b. Anglesite PbSO4
  • c. Cerussite PbCO3
  • d. Lanarkite PbO. PbSO4
8. Iron
  • a. Haematite Fe2O3
  • b. Limonite 2Fe2O3. 3H2O
  • c. Magnetite Fe2O4
  • d. Siderite Fe2CO3 (sphatic iron ore)
  • e. Iron pyrites FeS2


Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 8:20

Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 0:14 to 4:18

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