General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals
Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore, Refining
- Concentrated ore is converted to a compound suitable for production of metal by either roasting or calcination.
- An ore is heating in presence of air at below its melting point is called roasting
- a) In roasting sulphide ore is converted in to oxides is called oxidizing roasting.
- b) In roasting sulphide ore is converted in to sulphate on controlled conditions is called sulphadizing roasting.
- c) In chloradizing roasting sulphide mineral is converted in to chloride.
- a) Auto reduction involves heating in air as for cinnabar (HgS)
- b) Reduction by carbon:- Smelting coal or coke is used. Eg. For iron and zinc. Active metals like Na, Mg, Al or hydrogen gas are also used when carbon cannot.
- c) Electrolytic reduction is used for reactive metals like Li, Na, Ca, Al. Carbon reduction is not possible for these metals as they form carbides on heating to high temperature.
- a) Liquation – Eg. Sn and Pb
- b) Distillation – Eg. Zn
- c) Electrolysis for highly electropositive metals like Cu, Ag, Au etc.
- d) Hydro Metallurgy – Eg. Cyanide process for Ag, Au.
- e) Chemical process – Mond's process Eg. Ni
- a) Van Arkel method. Eg: Titanium, Zirconium, and Thorium.
- b) Zone refining – Eg. Germanium, Silicon etc.
Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 12:53
Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 15:17
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