Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Methods for Preparation of Alcohols and Phenols

Preparations of alcohols:
From alkenes:
(i) Acid catalysed hydration

From alkynes:
\tt CH\equiv CH\xrightarrow[kucherer(or)kucherov\ reaction]{H_2O/Hg^{2+},-H^+}CH_3CHO\xrightarrow[\Delta]{O_2/(CH_3COO)_2Mg}CH_3COOH

From haloalkanes:

Trick: Replacement of H by alkyl groups is related with the formation of 2° and 3°-alcohols.

From 1° amines:
\tt R-NH_2+O=N-O-H\xrightarrow{NaNO_{2}/HCl}R-OH+H_2O+N_2\uparrow

Methanol (wood spirit) from water gas:
\tt (CO+H_2)+H_2\xrightarrow[650K/200atm]{Zn/Cr_2O_3/CuO}CH_3OH

Ethanol from sugar by fermentation:

\tt C_{12}+H_{22}O_{11}(Molasses\ from\ sugar\ industry)\xrightarrow[Invertase]{H_2O/(NH_4)_2SO_4/yeast}C_6H_{12}O_6(Glucose)+C_6H_{12}O_6(Fructose)\xrightarrow{Zymase}C_2H_5OH(ethanol)+CO_2

Preparation of Phenols (Carbolic acid):
(a) From benzene: Industrial process:
(i) Rasching process:
\tt 2C_6H_6(vapour)+2HCl(Gas)+O_2\xrightarrow[-2H_2O]{CuCl_2/FeCl_3/523K}2C_6H_5Cl\xrightarrow[700K]{steam}C_6H_5OH(phenol)+HCl
(ii) Cumene process:

(b) From chlorobenzene: Industrial process: Dow's method
\tt C_6H_5Cl+2NaOH\xrightarrow[-NaCl,-H_2O]{200atm/250^0C}C_6H_5O^\ominus Na^\oplus \xrightarrow{H_2O/H^+}C_6H_5OH

(c) Acidic character of some compounds is
(a) HCOOH > CH3COOH > H2CO3 > C6H5OH > CH3OH > H2O > ROH C 1° > 2° > 3° > NH3 > Acetylene > CH2=CH2 > CH3—CH3

Part1: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 25:00

Part2: View the Topic in this Video from 0:07 to 24:09

Part3: View the Topic in this Video from 0:08 to 12:23

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